Nephrolithiasis - Nichols/Nace Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Nephrolithiasis - Nichols/Nace Deck (15)
1

Do pts with kidney shows show urine in the blood all the time?

No, because sometimes, the stone could be obstructing urine flow

2

What are the clinical symptoms of urinary tract problems?

Pain
Hematuria, gross or microscopic
Dysuria and stangury (frq. small painful voiding)

3

Are women or men primarily affected by kidney stones?

men 2x, with a recurrence risk of 50% by 5-10 years

4

What are the common places that one will sense pain from a kidney stone?

Ureteropelvic Juntion
Iliac Vessel Crossing
Bladder Entry

5

What will urinalysis present with during kidney stones?

hematuria
proteinuria
calcium oxalate crystals

6

What is the study of choice for kidney stone imaging?

unenhanced helical CT, detects stones as small as 1mm.

7

rank the types of renal stones from most to least common

calcium oxalate with calcium phosphate
calcium phosphate
magenisum ammonium phosphate (more common in females)
uric acid
cystine

8

What size stone passes spontaneously?

less than 5 mm

9

Stones greater than what mm are unlikely to pass on their own?

greater than 7 mm

10

What are invasive ways to treat kidney stones?

extracororeal shock wave lithotripsy
ureteroscopy
percutaneous nephrolithotomy

11

What are the determinants of solubility and crystallization?

concentration
pH
inhibitors (citrate, urinary glycoproteins)
a nidus (another crystal/intracellular nanobacteria)

12

What are risk factors for calcium oxalate stones?

hypercalcuria
hyperoxaluria
pH (alkaline)
urinary citrate
uric acid

13

Why are struvite (mag ammon phosphate) more common in women?

UTIs

14

What is a urease inhibitor that can be used to treat struvite stones?

acetohydroxamic

15

What are drugs that can lead to stones?

triamterene
protease inhibitors (indinavir, atazanavir)
guaifensein
silicate
sulfa drugs