Flashcards in Nephrolithiasis - Nichols/Nace Deck (15)
Do pts with kidney shows show urine in the blood all the time?
No, because sometimes, the stone could be obstructing urine flow
What are the clinical symptoms of urinary tract problems?
Hematuria, gross or microscopic
Dysuria and stangury (frq. small painful voiding)
Are women or men primarily affected by kidney stones?
men 2x, with a recurrence risk of 50% by 5-10 years
What are the common places that one will sense pain from a kidney stone?
Iliac Vessel Crossing
What will urinalysis present with during kidney stones?
calcium oxalate crystals
What is the study of choice for kidney stone imaging?
unenhanced helical CT, detects stones as small as 1mm.
rank the types of renal stones from most to least common
calcium oxalate with calcium phosphate
magenisum ammonium phosphate (more common in females)
What size stone passes spontaneously?
less than 5 mm
Stones greater than what mm are unlikely to pass on their own?
greater than 7 mm
What are invasive ways to treat kidney stones?
extracororeal shock wave lithotripsy
What are the determinants of solubility and crystallization?
inhibitors (citrate, urinary glycoproteins)
a nidus (another crystal/intracellular nanobacteria)
What are risk factors for calcium oxalate stones?
Why are struvite (mag ammon phosphate) more common in women?
What is a urease inhibitor that can be used to treat struvite stones?