What are the features of nephrotic syndrome
does nephrotic syndrome typically have inflammatory cells/
Are the creatinine levels normal, highly elevated or highly decreased in nephrotic syndrome?
normal or mildy elevated
In nephrotic syndrome, what are the casts like that are found in the urine?
they are inactive, typically wihtout dysmorphic red cells or red cell casts
What is the most important clinical presentation of glomerular disease to recognize?
What is a common cause of rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis?
What are hyaline casts?
colorless, homogeneous and transparent casts common in healthy urine
how do hyaline casts form?
what is the second most common type of cast and when does it occur?
granular type, resulting from aggregation of plasma proteins ie albumin or the breakdown of cellular casts.
composed of find granules are usually grey or plae yellow
composed larger coarse granules are darker, often black
indicate significant renal disease
what are yellow-tan hyaline casts with fat globule inclusions "oval fat bodies"
what cast type is indicative of glomerular damage?
what are white blood cell casts indicative off?
what are nephrotic syndrome mechanisms that don't have glomerular inflammation?
podocyte injury in minimal mchange disease and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis
subepithelial immune compmlex formation and complement activation in mebranous nephropathy
glomerular capillary wall deposition in diabetic nephropathy, amyloidosis and light chain deposition disease
what are nephrotic syndrome mechanisms with glomerular inflammation?
mesangial or capillary wall immune complex formation and complement activation in IgA nephropathy and acute post=strep glomer.
abs directed at the gbm
necrotizing injury and inflammation of the glomerular capillaries in disease associated with antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies.
what are the normal glomerular properties that allow for immune complexes being formed and trapped in glomeruli?
high plasma flow rate through them
high intraglomerular pressure
high glomerular hydraulic conductivity (permeability)
subepithelial deposits tend to cause nephrotic or nephritic syndrome?
is nephrotic or nephritic typically more severe? why?
what is the main site of hindrance for larger mculs in the kidney?
what is the upper limit of normal albuminuria?
urine dipsticks can detect albumin at what minimum concentration?
what is the earliest clinical manifestation of diabetic nephropathy, the most common cause of end-stage renal disease requiring dialysis?
what are various methods of protein measurement of urine?
dipstick, 24hr urine collection, spot urine protein/creatinine ratio
in nephrotic syndrome, loss of ? grams of protein per day in the urine is common?