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Flashcards in Nervous System Deck (42)
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31

What is Parkinson's disease?

A subcortical neurodegenerative disorder characterizd by movement disorder and changes of EPS nuclei

*decreased number of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra

32

Correlate the pathology of Parkinson's disease with the clinical features of the disease.

depigmented substantia nigra, due to loss of dopaminergic neurons, decreased amount of dopamine in striatum

loss of neurotransmitters correlates with the clinical appearance of movement disorders

loss of melanin-rich neurons, remaining neurons contain round eosinophilic inclusions = lewy bodies (beta synuclein)

33

What is ALS?

Possibly caused mutation of copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1) on chromosome 21

motor weakness and progressive muscle wasting

34

Correlate the pathology of ALS to the clinical features.

Loss of motor neurons in SC, midbrain, cerebral cortex

(most prominent lateral cerebrospinal pathways)

weakness and wasting of small hand muscles >> fasciculation >> slurred speech >> paralysis of respiratory muscles

35

Classify brain tumors.

50% are metastases

75% glial

15% meningeal

5% cranial/spinal nerves

2% neural cell precursors

 

36

List the most common brain tumors and their predominant location.

  • medulloblastoma >> cerebellum
  • astrocytoma >> cerebrum (children = cerebellum)
  • meningioma >> falx cerebri
  • glioblastoma multiforme >> cerebrum
  • oligodendroglioma
  • ependymoma >> 4th ventricle
  • schwannoma

37

Compare glioblastoma with other gliomas.

glioblastoma = most common

- butterfly-like appearance (crosses hemispheres)

- highly anaplastic astrocytic cells (fetal appearance, small blue nuclei, no cytoplasm) 

or multinucleated, bizarre

38

Which brain tumors occur most often in children?

Medulloblastoma!

Ependymoma

Pilocytic astrocytoma

39

Why do medulloblastomas metastasize?

They can enter CSF and be carried by CSF

40

What are meningiomas?

Most are benign, impinge from outside the cerebral hemispheres

10x more common in Women

surgically curable, good prognosis

41

Which tumors originate from the peripheral nerves?

schwanomma

neuroma

42