What is Parkinson's disease?
A subcortical neurodegenerative disorder characterizd by movement disorder and changes of EPS nuclei
*decreased number of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra
Correlate the pathology of Parkinson's disease with the clinical features of the disease.
depigmented substantia nigra, due to loss of dopaminergic neurons, decreased amount of dopamine in striatum
loss of neurotransmitters correlates with the clinical appearance of movement disorders
loss of melanin-rich neurons, remaining neurons contain round eosinophilic inclusions = lewy bodies (beta synuclein)
What is ALS?
Possibly caused mutation of copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1) on chromosome 21
motor weakness and progressive muscle wasting
Correlate the pathology of ALS to the clinical features.
Loss of motor neurons in SC, midbrain, cerebral cortex
(most prominent lateral cerebrospinal pathways)
weakness and wasting of small hand muscles >> fasciculation >> slurred speech >> paralysis of respiratory muscles
Classify brain tumors.
50% are metastases
5% cranial/spinal nerves
2% neural cell precursors
List the most common brain tumors and their predominant location.
- medulloblastoma >> cerebellum
- astrocytoma >> cerebrum (children = cerebellum)
- meningioma >> falx cerebri
- glioblastoma multiforme >> cerebrum
- ependymoma >> 4th ventricle
Compare glioblastoma with other gliomas.
glioblastoma = most common
- butterfly-like appearance (crosses hemispheres)
- highly anaplastic astrocytic cells (fetal appearance, small blue nuclei, no cytoplasm)
or multinucleated, bizarre
Which brain tumors occur most often in children?
Why do medulloblastomas metastasize?
They can enter CSF and be carried by CSF
What are meningiomas?
Most are benign, impinge from outside the cerebral hemispheres
10x more common in Women
surgically curable, good prognosis
Which tumors originate from the peripheral nerves?