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Flashcards in Nervous Tissue Deck (31):
1

What structures make up the Central Nervous System?

Brain & spinal cord

2

What structures make up the Peripheral Nervous System?

Cranial nerves, spinal nerves, ganglia, sensory receptors, somatic nervous system, autonomic nervous system, enteric nervous system

3

The spinal cord connects to the brain via what opening in the skull?

Foramen magnum

4

Afferent neurons are involved in what nervous system function?

sensory function - send sensory signals to the brain

5

Efferent neurons are involved in what nervous system function?

Motor function - brain sends signal to these neurons to act

6

What are cells contacted by efferent neurons called?

Effectors

7

Interneurons are involved in what function?

integrative function - spinal cord and brain level - signal relay

8

How many cranial nerves are there?

12 pairs

9

How many spinal nerves are there?

31 pairs

10

Describe what happens when the sympathetic nervous system is active

increased heart rate, blood vessels of digestive system vasoconstrict, pupils dilate, blood vessels to muscles vasodilate

11

Which part of the PNS is involuntary?

autonomic nervous system - breathing, heart beat

12

The autonomic nervous system consists of what two subdivisions?

sympathetic and parasympathetic

13

What is the function of enteric motor neurons?

govern contraction of the GI tract

14

List the general functions of neurons

sensing, thinking, remembering, controlling muscular activity, regulating glandular secretions

15

What is the function of neuroglia?

nourish, support and protect neurons

16

What are dendrites of a neuron?

the receiving (input) portion of the neuron

17

What is the function of a neuronal axon?

propagate impulses toward another neuron, muscle fiber or gland cell

18

What is the function of synpatic end bulbs?

store and release neurotransmitter

19

Define synapse

site of communication between two neurons or between a neuron and an effector cell

20

Describe the structure of multipolar neurons

one axon, many dendrites

21

What is the function of astrocytes?

form the blood/brain barrier

22

What is the function of oligodendroctyes?

form myelin in the CNS

23

What is the function of microglia?

Responsible for phagocytosis in the CNS

24

What is the function of ependymal cells?

Form cerebrospinal fluid

25

What is the function of Schwann cells?

Form myelin in the PNS

26

What is the function of satellite cells?

Repair peripheral neurons

27

What is the function of the myelin sheath on an axon?

Form segments of insulation to increase speed of nerve impulse conduction

28

What is the average resting membrane potential of a neuron?

-70mV

29

Name the 4 types of ion channels

Ligand-gated channel, leakage channel, voltage-gated channel, mechanically gated channel

30

Describe the electrochemical gradient

An electrical difference and a concentration difference across a membrane

31

What is the threshold for action potentials?

-55mV