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Flashcards in Digestive System Deck (25):
1

Define digestion

the process of breaking down food into molecules that are small enough to enter the body cells

2

Define absorption

the passage of molecules (from digested food) through the plasma membrane of cells lining the stomach and intestines into the blood and lymph

3

Define ingestion

the process of taking food/liquids into the mouth

4

Define defecation

the elimination of substances not absorbed after digestion through the anus

5

Define feces

the eliminated material in defecation

6

What is the parietal peritoneum?

the membrane that lines the wall of the abdominopelvic cavity

7

What is the visceral peritoneum?

The membrane that lines some of the organs in the abdominopelvic cavity

8

What is the peritoneal cavity?

The space between the parietal and visceral peritoneum

9

What is ascites?

distention in the peritoneal cavity caused by fluid accumulation

10

What is peritonitis?

inflammation of the peritoneum

11

What is mastication?

chewing

12

Define bolus

a soft, flexible mass of food that is easily swallowed

13

Define peristalsis.

a progression of coordinated contractions and relaxations that pushes the food bolus down the esophagus toward the stomach

14

What is chyme?

a soupy liquid mixture of saliva, food and gastric juice formed in the stomach

15

What is emesis?

vomiting

16

List the components of the digestive system in sequential order (of digestion)

Mouth (oral cavity) - teeth, tongue
Salivary glands
Pharynx
Esophagus
Stomach
Liver
Pancreas
Gall Bladder
Duodenum
Jejunum
Ileum
Appendix
cecum
Ascending colon
Transverse colon
Descending colon
sigmoid colon
rectum
anus

17

What are the three classes of digestive enzymes?

Protease, lipase, amylase

18

What substances in the digestive system are absorbed into the capillaries and which are absorbed into lacteals?

Capillaries - Water-soluble substances, B vitamins, vitamin C, amino acids, mono/disacharrides

Lacteals - fatty acids, triglycerides, vitamins A,D,E,K

19

What are the major salivary glands?

Parotid, submandibular, sublingual

20

Gastroenterology deals with the ________

structure, function, diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the ST and Intestines

21

Proctology deals with the ________

diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the rectum and anus

22

Accessory digestive organs include the ________

teeth, tongue, salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, pancreas

23

What are the layers of the GI tract?

Mucosa
Submucosa
Muscularis
Serosa

24

Which layer of the GI tract contains capillaries and lacteals to receive absorbed molecules?

Mucosa

25

The storehouse for fat in the abdomen is the _______

greater omentum