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Flashcards in Neural Explanations Of Aggression Deck (28)
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1

Where is the amygdala located in the brain?

Temporal lobe

2

Lesioning monkey's amygdala led to what?

Reduction in the fear response and an increase in aggression

3

What are the effects of an amygdalectomy in humans?

Reduced aggression and implications for emotional responses

4

How does the amygdala regulating emotion link to aggression?

Aggression may be motivated by abnormal emotional patterns

5

What does the prefrontal cortex influence?

Impulsivity

6

Individuals with damage to their prefrontal cortex show...

Impulsive behaviour, immaturity, altered emotion, short tempers and easily provoked which can lead to aggression

7

Which neurotransmitters are associated with aggression?

Serotonin and dopamine

8

How is serotonin thought to have a calming effect?

It calms down firing of the neurons and therefore brain activity

9

How is serotonin linked to aggression?

Low levels (particularly in PFC) cause impulsive and aggressive behaviour

10

What is dopamine produced in response too?

Rewarding behaviours eg eating and sex

11

How is dopamine linked to aggression?

Seek out aggressive behaviours because of the rewarding sensations caused by a release of dopamine

12

Who performed research into neural explanations of aggression?

Raine et al, tateno et al, zagrodzka et al

13

What kind of brain scan did raine use on his participants?

PET scans

14

What are the 2 brain structure associated with aggression?

Amygdala and prefrontal cortex

15

What was the ratio of males to females in Raine et al's research?

39 males, 2 females

16

What did all of the participants in Raine et al's research have in common?

All pleading not guilty for reasons of insanity (NGRI) and all had low activity in their prefrontal cortex and amygdala

17

How many participants did tateno use with traumatic brain injury?

89 males

18

How did tateno measure aggression?

Family interviews, police records and accounts of friends

19

What % of the brain damaged group were classified ad aggressive

34%

20

What did brain scans of the participants in tateno's research find?

Those classified as aggressive were more likely to have frontal lobe damage

21

What did zagrodzka do?

Damaged the central nucleus of the amygdala of cats

22

What did zagrodzka find?

Damage to the amygdala was a contributing factor to predator like attacks

23

What are the evaluation points of the neural explanations of aggression?

Too simplistic, supporting research for role of PFC, deterministic, animal research and practical applications

24

What are the practical applications of the neural explanations?

Treat chronically violent schizophrenic patients

25

Which research did research into the practical applications of neural explanation?

Vartiainen et al

26

What did vartiainen et al do?

Did a double blind trial using citalopram (SSRI) to treat chronically violent schizophrenic

27

What did vartiainen et al find?

Found citalopram (SSRI) reduced the frequency of aggressive incidents in chronically violent schizophrenics

28

What an opposing point against the practical applications of neural explanation?

Serotonin drugs are very complex as an increase in serotonin can effect appetite, digestion, sleep and memory