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61

Lateral area of hypothalamus?

Hunger. Inhibited by LEPTIN = appetite suppressant. Lesion = anorexia/FTT. HUNGRY for LATE's.

62

Ventromedial area of hypothalamus?

Satiety. Stimulated by leptin. Destruction (e.g. craniopharyngioma -> hyperphagia).

63

Anterior area of hypothalamus?

Cooling and parasympathetics. A for A/C.

64

Posterior hypothalamus?

Heating, sympathetic.

65

Suprachiastmatic nucleus

Circadian rhythm. Need to sleep to be charismatic.

66

OVLT

Organum vasuclosum of the laminal terminals senses changes in osmolarity. NOT protected by BBB.

67

Area postrema

Responds to emetics. NOT protected by BBB. (Toxin sensor). Located on dorsal surface of medulla at caudal end of 4th ventricle

68

What makes oxytocin and ADH?

Paraaventricular = oxytocin. Supraoptic = ADH. "A DH needs super good eyes!" "Vent the room after using Oxy-clean."

69

Melatonin production?

From pineal gland stimulated by NE made from the suprachiasmatic nucleus.

70

EEG waveforms phrase

BATS Drink Blood.

71

Theta waves

Non-REM 1. Light sleep

72

Alpha waves

Awake with eyes-closed. Alpha: First things first, close your eyes.

73

Beta waves

Awake and alert AND REM sleep (loss of motor tone, dec. oxygen use, variable pulse and pressure, dreaming, tumescence, memory?)

74

Delta waves

Delta = Deepest non-REM sleep (Slow-wave with HIGH amplitude) Stage N3 where night errors, sleepwalking, and bedwetting occur.

75

Sleep spindles and K complexes?

N2 (45% of sleep). N2 is when bruxism occurs.

76

Neuro vs. adenohypophysis?

Neurohypophysis = POSTERIOR. Neuro for ADH and oxytoxcin

77

Five nuclei of the thalamus

VPL, VPM, LGN, MGN, and VL

78

VPL

Ventral posterolateral nucleus - spinothalamic, dorsal column; pain and temperature, pressure, touch, vibration, propioception; headed toward primary somatosensory cortex. P for posterior column (dorsal) and L for anteroLateral system.

79

VPM

Ventral posteromedial nucleus - trigeminal and gustatory pathway; face sensation and taste; primary somatosensory cortex. "Make-up for the face."

80

LGN

Relay for LIGHT. CN II, vision headed toward Calcarine sulcus.

81

MGN

M for MUSIC. Superior olive and inferir colliculus of tectum, hearing -> auditory cortex of temporal lobe

82

Limbic system

5 F's - Feeding, Fleeing (autonomics), Fighting (autonomics), Feeling. Emotion, long-term memory, olfaction, behavior modulation, ANS

83

Input into the cerebellum?

Contralateral cortex via the middle cerebellar peduncle. Ipsilateral propioceptive information via inferior cerebellar peduncle (climbing and mossy fibers)

84

Cerebellar outputs?

Contralateral cortex (Purkinje -> deep nuclei -> contralateral cortex via superior cerebellar peduncle)

85

Cerebellar deep nuclei?

From lateral to medial: Dentate, Emboliform, Globose, Fastigial (DEGF)

86

Lateral cerebellar vs. medial cerebellar lesions?

Lateral lesions -> fall ipsilaterally. Medial lesions -> truncal ataxia, nystagmus, head tilting, b/l motor deficits.

87

Basal ganglia structures

Striatum = putamen and caudate. Lentiform = putamen and globus pallidus.

88

Excitatory pathway of basal ganglia

Cortex stimulates striatum (GABAerg) which inhibits the GPi/SNr to disinhibits the thalamus (VA/VL).

89

Inhibitory pathway of basal ganglia

Cortex stimulates striatum to inhibit the GPe, which disinhibits the sub-thalamic nucleus, which activates the GPi/SNr to inhibit the VA/VL thalamus.

90

Substantia nigra pars compacta's role in Parkinson's

Acts via D1 on excitatory pathway to reinforce and acts via D2 on inhibitory pathway to oppose. These neurons degenerate in Parkinson's