Flashcards in Neuro Deck (304)
Lateral area of hypothalamus?
Hunger. Inhibited by LEPTIN = appetite suppressant. Lesion = anorexia/FTT. HUNGRY for LATE's.
Ventromedial area of hypothalamus?
Satiety. Stimulated by leptin. Destruction (e.g. craniopharyngioma -> hyperphagia).
Anterior area of hypothalamus?
Cooling and parasympathetics. A for A/C.
Circadian rhythm. Need to sleep to be charismatic.
Organum vasuclosum of the laminal terminals senses changes in osmolarity. NOT protected by BBB.
Responds to emetics. NOT protected by BBB. (Toxin sensor). Located on dorsal surface of medulla at caudal end of 4th ventricle
What makes oxytocin and ADH?
Paraaventricular = oxytocin. Supraoptic = ADH. "A DH needs super good eyes!" "Vent the room after using Oxy-clean."
From pineal gland stimulated by NE made from the suprachiasmatic nucleus.
EEG waveforms phrase
BATS Drink Blood.
Non-REM 1. Light sleep
Awake with eyes-closed. Alpha: First things first, close your eyes.
Awake and alert AND REM sleep (loss of motor tone, dec. oxygen use, variable pulse and pressure, dreaming, tumescence, memory?)
Delta = Deepest non-REM sleep (Slow-wave with HIGH amplitude) Stage N3 where night errors, sleepwalking, and bedwetting occur.
Sleep spindles and K complexes?
N2 (45% of sleep). N2 is when bruxism occurs.
Neuro vs. adenohypophysis?
Neurohypophysis = POSTERIOR. Neuro for ADH and oxytoxcin
Five nuclei of the thalamus
VPL, VPM, LGN, MGN, and VL
Ventral posterolateral nucleus - spinothalamic, dorsal column; pain and temperature, pressure, touch, vibration, propioception; headed toward primary somatosensory cortex. P for posterior column (dorsal) and L for anteroLateral system.
Ventral posteromedial nucleus - trigeminal and gustatory pathway; face sensation and taste; primary somatosensory cortex. "Make-up for the face."
Relay for LIGHT. CN II, vision headed toward Calcarine sulcus.
M for MUSIC. Superior olive and inferir colliculus of tectum, hearing -> auditory cortex of temporal lobe
5 F's - Feeding, Fleeing (autonomics), Fighting (autonomics), Feeling. Emotion, long-term memory, olfaction, behavior modulation, ANS
Input into the cerebellum?
Contralateral cortex via the middle cerebellar peduncle. Ipsilateral propioceptive information via inferior cerebellar peduncle (climbing and mossy fibers)
Contralateral cortex (Purkinje -> deep nuclei -> contralateral cortex via superior cerebellar peduncle)
Cerebellar deep nuclei?
From lateral to medial: Dentate, Emboliform, Globose, Fastigial (DEGF)
Lateral cerebellar vs. medial cerebellar lesions?
Lateral lesions -> fall ipsilaterally. Medial lesions -> truncal ataxia, nystagmus, head tilting, b/l motor deficits.
Basal ganglia structures
Striatum = putamen and caudate. Lentiform = putamen and globus pallidus.
Excitatory pathway of basal ganglia
Cortex stimulates striatum (GABAerg) which inhibits the GPi/SNr to disinhibits the thalamus (VA/VL).
Inhibitory pathway of basal ganglia
Cortex stimulates striatum to inhibit the GPe, which disinhibits the sub-thalamic nucleus, which activates the GPi/SNr to inhibit the VA/VL thalamus.