Flashcards in Neuro Deck (304)
Tertiary syphilis -> demyelination of dorsal columns and roots -> impaired sensation, propioception, coordination. Charcot joints, Argyll Robertson pupils (small pupils that accommodate but do not react to light). Absent DTRs and POS romberg
Syrinx damages anterior white commisure -> b/l loss of pain and temperature
Poliovirus (oropharynx and SI replication before spreading hematogenously to CNS). Destruction of anterior horn cells -> LMN death. Weakness, hypotonia, flaccid paralysis, fasciculations. CSF shows inc. WBCS and slight increased protein w/ NO CSF glucose change.
Spinal muscular atrophy (Werdnig-Hoffmann disease)
Congenital degeneration of anterior horn cells. AR.
AR GAA on Chromosome 9 (frataxin) -> mt dysf(x). Muscle weakness and loss of DTRs. Staggering, frequent falls,nystagmus, pes caves, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
Hemisection. Ipsilateral UMN signs (corticospinal). Ipsilateral dorsal column. Contralateral anterolateral. (pain and temperature). At the level of lesion, loss of all sensation. Above T1, could have Horner's syndrome
Horner syndrome and its pathway.
Ptosis (superior tarsal m.), Anhidrosis and flushin, Miosis. Hypothalamus to synapse in lateral horn of intermediolateral column of spinal cord (T1) -> superior cervical (sympathetic) ganglion (which is near bifurcate of common carotid) synapse -> sweat glands of face, opthalmic division of trigeminal nerve for pupillary dilator, sweat glands of forehead + smooth muscle of eyelid
C2 vs. C3
Posterior part of skull cap vs. high turtleneck
Spinal cord lvls that would affect erection
Anal wink reflex
When are primitive reflexes exhibited?
Before age 1. Or "frontal release" (adult with frontal lobe lesions)
Stroking one side of spine while ventral suspension causes lateral flexion of lower body toward stimulated side
Paralysis of conjugate VERTICAL gaze 2/2 lesion in superior colliculi (e.g. pinealoma)
What are the cranial nerves that have both sensory and motor nerves?
CN V, VII, IX, X. "Some say marry money, but my brother says big brains matter most."
Midbrain vs. Pons vs. Medulla CN nuclei
Midbrain = CN III, IV. Pons = V, VI, VII, VIII. Medulla = IX, X, XII. Pons 5-8. Generally, lateral nuclei are sensory while medial nuclei are motor.
Afferent V1, efferent VII (orbicularis oculi)
Afferent V1, efferent VII.
Jaw jerk reflex
Afferent V3 (masster spindle), efferent V3 (masseter)
The vagal nuclei
Nucleus solitarius, nucleus ambiguus, dorsal motor nucleus
S for Sensory. Visceral sensory (taste, baro, gut distenstion. CN VII, IX, X.
M for MOTOR - pharynx, larynx, upper esophagus. IX, X, XI.
Dorsal motor nucleus
Parasympathetics of heart, lungs, upper GI. CN X
Parotid, submandibular, and sublingual gland innervation?
Parotid = CN IX. Other two are CN VII.