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151

Tabes dorsalis

Tertiary syphilis -> demyelination of dorsal columns and roots -> impaired sensation, propioception, coordination. Charcot joints, Argyll Robertson pupils (small pupils that accommodate but do not react to light). Absent DTRs and POS romberg

152

Syringomyelia

Syrinx damages anterior white commisure -> b/l loss of pain and temperature

153

Poliomyelitis

Poliovirus (oropharynx and SI replication before spreading hematogenously to CNS). Destruction of anterior horn cells -> LMN death. Weakness, hypotonia, flaccid paralysis, fasciculations. CSF shows inc. WBCS and slight increased protein w/ NO CSF glucose change.

154

Spinal muscular atrophy (Werdnig-Hoffmann disease)

Congenital degeneration of anterior horn cells. AR.

155

Friedreich ataxia

AR GAA on Chromosome 9 (frataxin) -> mt dysf(x). Muscle weakness and loss of DTRs. Staggering, frequent falls,nystagmus, pes caves, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

156

Brown-Sequard syndrome

Hemisection. Ipsilateral UMN signs (corticospinal). Ipsilateral dorsal column. Contralateral anterolateral. (pain and temperature). At the level of lesion, loss of all sensation. Above T1, could have Horner's syndrome

157

Horner syndrome and its pathway.

Ptosis (superior tarsal m.), Anhidrosis and flushin, Miosis. Hypothalamus to synapse in lateral horn of intermediolateral column of spinal cord (T1) -> superior cervical (sympathetic) ganglion (which is near bifurcate of common carotid) synapse -> sweat glands of face, opthalmic division of trigeminal nerve for pupillary dilator, sweat glands of forehead + smooth muscle of eyelid

158

C2 vs. C3

Posterior part of skull cap vs. high turtleneck

159

Spinal cord lvls that would affect erection

S2,3,4

160

Biceps reflex

C5,6

161

Triceps reflex

C7,8

162

Patellar reflex

L3,4

163

Achilles reflex

S1,2

164

Cremaster reflex

L1,L2

165

Anal wink reflex

S3,S4

166

When are primitive reflexes exhibited?

Before age 1. Or "frontal release" (adult with frontal lobe lesions)

167

Galant reflex

Stroking one side of spine while ventral suspension causes lateral flexion of lower body toward stimulated side

168

Parinaud syndrome

Paralysis of conjugate VERTICAL gaze 2/2 lesion in superior colliculi (e.g. pinealoma)

169

Inferior colliculi

auditory

170

What are the cranial nerves that have both sensory and motor nerves?

CN V, VII, IX, X. "Some say marry money, but my brother says big brains matter most."

171

Midbrain vs. Pons vs. Medulla CN nuclei

Midbrain = CN III, IV. Pons = V, VI, VII, VIII. Medulla = IX, X, XII. Pons 5-8. Generally, lateral nuclei are sensory while medial nuclei are motor.

172

Corneal reflex?

Afferent V1, efferent VII (orbicularis oculi)

173

Lacrimation reflex

Afferent V1, efferent VII.

174

Jaw jerk reflex

Afferent V3 (masster spindle), efferent V3 (masseter)

175

The vagal nuclei

Nucleus solitarius, nucleus ambiguus, dorsal motor nucleus

176

Nucleus solitarius

S for Sensory. Visceral sensory (taste, baro, gut distenstion. CN VII, IX, X.

177

Nucleus ambiguus

M for MOTOR - pharynx, larynx, upper esophagus. IX, X, XI.

178

Dorsal motor nucleus

Parasympathetics of heart, lungs, upper GI. CN X

179

Parotid, submandibular, and sublingual gland innervation?

Parotid = CN IX. Other two are CN VII.

180

Superior orbital fissure

CN III, IV, V1, VI, opthalmic vein, sympathetic fibers. Standing room only, but the spinster is meningeal.