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Flashcards in neuro drugs Deck (42):
1

opioid analgesics MOA

mu agonists (open K, close Ca) to decrease transmission
- inhibit release of ACh, NE, 5-HT, substance P, glutamate

2

opioid analgesics ADR

addiction, respiratory depression, miosis, additive CNS depression with other drugs
- tx with naloxone

3

butorphanol

MOA: partial mu agonist, produces analgesia
USES: extreme pain (migraine, labor, etc.)
ADR: less respiratory depression than full agonist, overdose not easily reversed with naloxone

4

tramadol

MOA: weak opioid agonist, works on lots of NTs ("tram it all")
USE: chronic pain
ADR: decrease sz threshold, serotonin sydrome

5

2 non opioids for neuropathic pain

duloxetine
gabapentin

6

ethosuximide

MOA: blocks T-type Ca channels
USE: absence
ADR: SJS

7

benzos for sz

MOA: increase freq Cl channel opening to increase GABA
USE: status elipticus

8

phenytoin

MOA: increase Na channel inactivation
USE: status elipticus, tonic-clonic
ADR: SJS

9

carbamazepine

MOA: Na channel inactivation
USE: partial/generalized sz
ADR: SJS, agranulocytosis, aplastic anemia, SIADH, teratogenesis (neural tube)

10

valproic acid

MOA: Na channel inactivation and increase GABA
USE: tonic clonic (also all others), bipolar
ADR: hepatotoxicity, contra in pregnancy (neural tube)

11

gabapentin

MOA: GABA analog, inhibits Ca channels
USE: partial/generalized sz, peripheral neuropathic pain

12

phenobarbital

MOA: increase GABA
USE: partial/generalized sz, great in neonates

13

topiramate

MOA: blocks Na channels, increase GABA
USE: partial/generalized sz, migraine prevention, EtOH and cocaine addiction
ADR: mental dulling

14

lamotrigine

MOA: blocks Na channels
USE: all sz
ADR: SJS

15

3 meds for absence sz

ethosuximide, valproic acid, lamotrigine

16

barbituates

"-barbital"
MOA: increase duration of Cl channel opening to decrease neuron firing and increase GABA
USE: sedative, anesthesia
ADR: resp/CV depression, CYP-450, dependence

17

benzos

MOA: increase freq of Cl channel opening to increase GABA
USE: anxiety, status epileptics, EtOH detox, anesthesia
ADR: additive CNS effects, dependence
- tx overdose with flumazenil

18

insomnia agents

zolpidem, zaleplon, eszopiclone, temazepam, trazodone
MOA: BZ1 GABA receptor

19

anesthetics for maintenance

inhaled: halothane, enflurane, isoflurane, NO
ADR: malignant hyperthermia, hepatotoxicity (halothane), nephhrotoxicity (methoxyflurane), proconvulsant (enflurane)

20

induction anesthetics

propofol, ketamine (PCP analog), thiopental (barbituate), benzos

21

local anesthetics

lidocaine, procaine, bupivacaine, etc.
MOA: preferentially blocks activated Na channels

22

depolarizing neuromuscular blocking drugs

USE: mm. paralysis in surgery or ventilation
- succinylcholine: ACh agonist produces sustained depolarization and prevents contraction

23

nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking drugs

"-curium"
MOA: ACh competitive antagonist (reverse with neostigmine)

24

Parkinson drugs

DA agonists: bromocriptine
increase DA: amantadine, L-DOPA/carbidopa
prevent breakdown: selegiline
curb excess cholinergic activity: benztropine

25

Alzheimer drugs

memantine: NMDA antagonist
donepezil, rivastigmine: AChE inhibitors

26

sumatriptan

MOA: 5-HT agonist (inhibits trigeminal nerve activation, prevents vasoactive peptide release, vasoconstriction)
USE: migrane, cluster
ADR: coronary vasospasm (contra in CAD, angina)

27

ADHD drugs

CNS stimulants: amphetamine salts, methylphenidate, phentermine
MOA: increase NE and DA
USE: ADHD, appetite control, narcolepsy
ADR: growth restriction

28

high potency antipsychotics

haloperidol, trifluoperazine, fluphenazine
MOA: block D2
USE: schizophrenia positive symptoms, tourettes
ADR: EPS symptoms

29

low potency antipsychotics

chlorpromazine, thioridazine
MOA: block D2
ADR: anticholinergic, antihistamine effects, sedation
- chlorpromazine: corneal deposits
- thioridazine: retinal deposits

30

2 serious ADR of typical antipsychotics

tardive dyskinesia
neuroleptic malignant syndrome

31

atypical antipsychotics

clozapine, risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine
MOA: ?
USE: schizo (positive and negative symptoms), bipolar, OCD, tourettes
ADR: fewer than typicals
- clozapine: agranulocytosis

32

lithium

MOA: ?
USE: mood stabilizer for bipolar, SIADH
ADR: HORNET

33

buspirone

MOA: stimulates 5-HT receptors
USE: anxiety
PROS: less abuse potential, minimal hypnotic effects, doesn't interact with alcohol

34

SSRIs

fluoxetine, paroxetine, sertraline, citalopram
USE: depression, anxiety, panic, OCD, bulemia, PTSD
ADR: serotonin syndrome, sexual dysfunction
- tx with cyproheptadine

35

SNRI

venlafaxine, duloxetine

36

TCAs

"-ipramine", "-iptyline"
MOA: block repute of NE and 5-HT
ADR: convulsions, coma, cardiotoxicity (arrhythmias), resp depression, anticholinergic
- NaHCO3 for cardio toxicity

37

wide QRS and overdose

TCA overdose

38

MAOIs

PITS: phenelzine, isocarboxazid, tranylcypromine, selegiline
USE: atypical depression
ADR: hypertensive crisis, contra with SSRI, TCA, St. John's

39

mood stabilizers

lithium, valproic acid, carbamazepine, lamotrigine
MOA: Na inhibition (anticonvulsant), GABA agonist (mood stabilizer)

40

bupropion

MOA: NE, DA uptake inhibitor
USE: smoking, depression
ADR: sz in bulemia pts
PRO: no sexual side effects

41

mirtazapine

MOA: alpha 2 antagonist (increase NE, 5-HT release)
USE: depression
ADR: weight gain, sedation

42

trazodone

MOA: blocks 5-HT2 and alpha 1
USE: insomnia
ADR: priapism ("trazobone")