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Flashcards in physiology Deck (44):
1

3 causes of decreased lung compliance

pulmonary edema (ie: heart failure), pulmonary fibrosis, insufficient surfactant

2

prostacyclin

= platelet gathering inhibitor (PGI2)
made from COX
inhibits platelet aggregation and promotes vasodilation
opposes thromboxane A2

3

PRL's effect on gonadal pathway

PRL suppresses GnRH leading to low E, T

4

anti-inflammatory cytokines

IL-10 and TBF-beta

5

what makes heart valves open/close?

pressure differences on either side of the valve
-open when pressure is greater behind them and vice versa
-semilunar valves open when ventricular pressure overcomes aortic pressure for example

6

which lab can confirm menopause?

elevated FSH levels

7

what causes automaticity of pacemaker cells?

slow inward leak of sodium (funny current)

8

what controls the conversion of NE to E?

cortisol (increases expression of PNMT)

9

role of club cells in lung

secrete surfactant components and help detoxify inhaled substances (ie: smoke) via a cytochrome p450 mechanism

10

potassium excretion in kidney

- mostly reabsorbed in proximal tubule and loop of Henle
- excretion (if necessary) in distal tubule and collecting duct

11

diffusion-limited vs. perfusion-limited exchange in lung

perfusion-limited: usual resting state, exacerbated by PE (no gas exchange so PO2 will be same between trachea and alveoli)
diffusion-limited: emphysema, pulmonary fibrosis

12

receptors that use JAK/STAT

GH, PRL, IL-2, cytokines

13

hypoxic vasoconstriction

occurs in lungs to divert flow from under ventilated regions
hypoxia causes vasodilation in other tissues

14

inulin

inulin clearance is approx = GFR because it is neither secreted nor reabsorbed (creatinine can also be used)

15

location of NT release in CNS (NE, DA, 5-HT, ACh, GABA)

NE = locus ceruleus (pons)
DA = ventral tegmentum and SNc (midbrain)
5-HT = raphe nucleus (midbrain, pons, medulla)
ACh = basal nucleus of Meynert
GABA = nucleus accumbens

16

which glands secrete alkaline mucus into crypts of Lieberkuhn?

Brunner's glands (found only in duodenum)

17

2 exceptions to NE as neurotransmitter of sympathetic post-ganglionic neurons

1. adrenals directly innervated by preganglionic sympathetic neurons using ACh
2. sweat glands innervated by postganglionic sympathetic neurons using ACh

18

C peptide

- formed from proinsulin in beta cell Golgi
- packed in vesicle with insulin and secreted in equimolar concentrations

19

which glucose transporter is responsive to insulin?

GLUT-4 (found on skeletal muscle cells and adipocytes)

20

type of withdrawal: yawning, lacrimation, dilated pupils, hyperactive bowel sounds

heroin

21

which artery overlies the 3rd part of the duodenum?

superior mesenteric a.

22

PAS stain indicates presence of ....

glycoproteins

23

role of thyroid peroxidase

thyroglobulin iodination (occurs in lumen)

24

snRNP function

help remove introns from RNA transcript (forms part of spliceosome)

25

haptoglobin

serum protein that binds free hemoglobin and promotes its uptake by RES

26

nerve roots of anal wink reflex

S3-4

27

marker for mast cell activation

tryptase (released along with histamine)

28

which artery runs with the radial nerve?

deep brachial artery

29

functions of PPAR-gamma

transcriptional regulator of genes involved in glucose and lipid metabolism
- increase adiponectin
- increase GLUT-4
- increase fatty acid transport protein
- increase insulin receptor substrate

30

leukotriene B4

neutrophil chemotaxis

31

hepatoduodenal ligament contains...

portal triad: hepatic a., portal v., common bile duct

32

function of nucleolus

synthesis of ribosomal RNA

33

artery that supplies femoral neck

medial femoral circumflex artery

34

innervation of carotid sinus baroreceptors vs. aortic arch baroreceptors

carotid: glossopharyngeal
aortic: vagus

35

changes normal in heart with aging

- decreased left ventricle size: causes septum to take on sigmoid shape
- myocardial atrophy
- deposition of collagen/amyloid
- accumulation of granules containing lipofuscin

36

equation to calculate urine clearance of a substance

C = (urine concentration)(urine flow rate) / plasma concentration

37

stop codons

UAA, UAG, UGA

38

safranin O stain

stains cartilage, mast cell granules, mucin (red)

39

miosis vs. mydriasis

miosis: constriction, parasympathetic
mydriases: dilation, sympathetic

40

where does beta oxidation of very long fatty chains acids or branched point at odd-numbered carbons occur?

peroxisomes (not mitochondria)

41

TNF-alpha

from macrophage
- acute phase cytokine
- induces systemic inflammation (ie: fever, cachexia, sepsis)

42

which organ produces the most deoxygenated venous blood?

heart (extracts more O2 than all other organs)

43

which prokaryotic polymerase has 5' to 3' exonuclease activity?

DNA pol I (all have 3' to 5')

44

hydrophobic amino acids

VIP GAL
valine, isoleucine, proline, phenylalanine, glycine, alanine, leucine