Flashcards in physiology Deck (44):
3 causes of decreased lung compliance
pulmonary edema (ie: heart failure), pulmonary fibrosis, insufficient surfactant
= platelet gathering inhibitor (PGI2)
made from COX
inhibits platelet aggregation and promotes vasodilation
opposes thromboxane A2
PRL's effect on gonadal pathway
PRL suppresses GnRH leading to low E, T
IL-10 and TBF-beta
what makes heart valves open/close?
pressure differences on either side of the valve
-open when pressure is greater behind them and vice versa
-semilunar valves open when ventricular pressure overcomes aortic pressure for example
which lab can confirm menopause?
elevated FSH levels
what causes automaticity of pacemaker cells?
slow inward leak of sodium (funny current)
what controls the conversion of NE to E?
cortisol (increases expression of PNMT)
role of club cells in lung
secrete surfactant components and help detoxify inhaled substances (ie: smoke) via a cytochrome p450 mechanism
potassium excretion in kidney
- mostly reabsorbed in proximal tubule and loop of Henle
- excretion (if necessary) in distal tubule and collecting duct
diffusion-limited vs. perfusion-limited exchange in lung
perfusion-limited: usual resting state, exacerbated by PE (no gas exchange so PO2 will be same between trachea and alveoli)
diffusion-limited: emphysema, pulmonary fibrosis
receptors that use JAK/STAT
GH, PRL, IL-2, cytokines
occurs in lungs to divert flow from under ventilated regions
hypoxia causes vasodilation in other tissues
inulin clearance is approx = GFR because it is neither secreted nor reabsorbed (creatinine can also be used)
location of NT release in CNS (NE, DA, 5-HT, ACh, GABA)
NE = locus ceruleus (pons)
DA = ventral tegmentum and SNc (midbrain)
5-HT = raphe nucleus (midbrain, pons, medulla)
ACh = basal nucleus of Meynert
GABA = nucleus accumbens
which glands secrete alkaline mucus into crypts of Lieberkuhn?
Brunner's glands (found only in duodenum)
2 exceptions to NE as neurotransmitter of sympathetic post-ganglionic neurons
1. adrenals directly innervated by preganglionic sympathetic neurons using ACh
2. sweat glands innervated by postganglionic sympathetic neurons using ACh
- formed from proinsulin in beta cell Golgi
- packed in vesicle with insulin and secreted in equimolar concentrations
which glucose transporter is responsive to insulin?
GLUT-4 (found on skeletal muscle cells and adipocytes)
type of withdrawal: yawning, lacrimation, dilated pupils, hyperactive bowel sounds
which artery overlies the 3rd part of the duodenum?
superior mesenteric a.
PAS stain indicates presence of ....
role of thyroid peroxidase
thyroglobulin iodination (occurs in lumen)
help remove introns from RNA transcript (forms part of spliceosome)
serum protein that binds free hemoglobin and promotes its uptake by RES
nerve roots of anal wink reflex
marker for mast cell activation
tryptase (released along with histamine)
which artery runs with the radial nerve?
deep brachial artery
functions of PPAR-gamma
transcriptional regulator of genes involved in glucose and lipid metabolism
- increase adiponectin
- increase GLUT-4
- increase fatty acid transport protein
- increase insulin receptor substrate
hepatoduodenal ligament contains...
portal triad: hepatic a., portal v., common bile duct
function of nucleolus
synthesis of ribosomal RNA
artery that supplies femoral neck
medial femoral circumflex artery
innervation of carotid sinus baroreceptors vs. aortic arch baroreceptors
changes normal in heart with aging
- decreased left ventricle size: causes septum to take on sigmoid shape
- myocardial atrophy
- deposition of collagen/amyloid
- accumulation of granules containing lipofuscin
equation to calculate urine clearance of a substance
C = (urine concentration)(urine flow rate) / plasma concentration
UAA, UAG, UGA
safranin O stain
stains cartilage, mast cell granules, mucin (red)
miosis vs. mydriasis
miosis: constriction, parasympathetic
mydriases: dilation, sympathetic
where does beta oxidation of very long fatty chains acids or branched point at odd-numbered carbons occur?
peroxisomes (not mitochondria)
- acute phase cytokine
- induces systemic inflammation (ie: fever, cachexia, sepsis)
which organ produces the most deoxygenated venous blood?
heart (extracts more O2 than all other organs)
which prokaryotic polymerase has 5' to 3' exonuclease activity?
DNA pol I (all have 3' to 5')