Neuro Vocab Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Neuro Vocab Deck (40):
1

Agnosia

Inability to recognize familiar objects with one form of sensation

2

Akinesia

Inability to initiate movement

3

Aphasia

Disturbance to language that results in errors in word choice, comprehension, or syntax

4

Apraxia

Inability to perform movements previously learned even though there is no loss of strength, coordination, sensation, or comprehension

5

Ideational Apraxia

Person no longer understand the "idea" of how to do a routine task

6

Ideomotor Apraxia

Person cannot do the task on command but can do it spontaneously

7

Astereognosia

Inability to identify objects by touch alone

8

Asynergia

Inability to move muscle together in a coordinated manner

9

Ataxia

Uncoordinated movement, especially gait

10

Athetosis

Slow, involuntary, worm-like, twisting motions. Usually seen if forms of CP

11

Causalgia

Burning sensations often associated with CRPS type I

12

Cheyne-Stokes Respirations

A common bizarre breathing pattern characterized by a period apnea lasting 10-60s followed by gradually increasing, then decreasing depth and frequency of respirations.

Accompanied by the depression of frontal lobe and diencephalic dysfunction.

13

Chorrea

Rapid involuntary, jerky movements

14

Clonus

Rhythmic oscillation of a muscle in response to a sustained stretch in patients with UMN disease

15

Decerebrate Rigidity

Contraction of extensor muscles of UE and LE d/t injury of the brainstem

16

Decorticate Rigidity

Contraction of flexor muscles of UE and extensor contraction of LE

17

Delirium

Temporary confusion and loss of mental function often 2/2 illness, drug toxicity, or lack of O2.

18

Dementia

Loss of memory or intellectual functioning. Often slowly progressive and nonreversible.

19

Dysmetria

Inability to judge distances. Seen in cerebellar dysfunction

20

Electromyography (EMG)

The study of graphic record the contraction of a muscle as a result of electrical stimulation. Used to evaluate the voluntary electrical activity of the muscle.

21

Glove and stocking anesthesia

Generalized peripheral neuropathy in which distal portions of the nerves degenerate resulting in anesthesia of the distal extremities in a pattern as if the pt was wearing gloves and stockings. Occasionally seen in GB.

22

Herpes Zoster (shingles)

A painful inflammation of posterior root ganglion, cased by virus, resulting in the formation of vesicles along the course of the dermatome

23

Horner's Syndrome

Ptosis of the eyelid, constriction of the pupil, and lack of sweating on the ipsilateral face, often accompanying stroke involving the anterior inferior or posterior inferior cerebellar artery.

24

Morton's Neuroma

An excessive pronation during the stance produces compression between the third and fourth metatarsals

25

Nerve Conduction Velocity Test

Determines the speed of propagation of an action potential along a nerve or muscle fiber

26

Nystagmus

Rapid usually back and forth, movement of the eyeballs

27

Reciprocal Inhibition

Inhibition of muscles antagonistic to those being facilitated. This is essential for coordinated movement

28

Romberg's Sign

LOB in standing with eyes closed

29

Somatagnosia

A lack of awareness of the relationship of one's own body parts of the body parts of others

30

Vegetative State

A deep coma with abnormal posturing. Different from a coma in that there are sleep wake cycles.

31

Visual Acuity

Sharpness of vision that generally decreases with age or certain disabilities such as diabetes

32

Homonymous hemianopsia

A deficit of either the right or the left half of the visual field, caused by damage to the contralateral optic nerve.

33

Bitemporal hemianopsia

A deficit of the temporal or peripheral visual fields, caused by injury at the optic chiasm

34

Monocular blindness

Caused by damage to the optic nerve

35

Hyperventilation

Increased rate and depth of respirations. Seen in dysfunction of lower midbrain and pons

36

Apneuistic breathing

Abnormal breathing marked by prolonged inspiration. Seen in damage to upper pons

37

Hypotonia

Decreased tone. Seen in LMN lesions (nerve roots and peripheral nerve injuries). Also seen initially after a UMN lesion for a brief period of spinal shock in SCI or cerebral shock in CVA.

38

Spasticity

Velocity-dependent resistance to PROM. Seen in UMN lesions.

Types: clasp-knife response, clonus, abnormal superficial cutaneous reflexes, hyperreflexia

39

Extensor synergy

UE: Scapular protraction, shoulder ADD, IR, elbow extension, pronation, wrist and finger flexion

LE: Hip extension, hip ADD, IR, knee extension, PF, IV

40

Flexor synergy

UE: Scapular retraction, shoulder ABD, ER, elbow flexion, supination, wrist and finger flexion

LE: Hip extension, hip ADD, IR, knee flexion, DF, IV