Flashcards in Pharm Review Deck (48):
What is bioavailability?
The % of medication that reaches systemic circulation
What are the different methods of absorption?
What re the the 4 stages of the medication cycle?
When is a drug "active"?
When it is unbound to to a protein
What happens if there is too much unbound drug in the system?
Where are sites that drugs may accumulate and be slowly released?
sites of fat stores
What is Asprin and what are its effects?
inhibits COX, thus inhibiting prostaglandin synthesis
What are some side effects of Asprin?
Adverse effects of Asprin?
prolonged bleeding times
What is the common name for NSAID's?
Ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin)
What are the effects of ibuprofen?
What are the side effects of ibuprofen?
fluid retention and edema (problem in renal dysfx, CHF)
What are some drug reactions
Decreases lithium clearance (inc blood levels)
What are glucocortorticosteroids used for?
What are some side effects/adverse effects for glucocortorticosteroids?
Depression, anxiety, euphoria, "mood swings"
cushingoid state(moon face) acne stretch marks on extremities
what are three other agents used with arthritis?
What are DMARD's used for?
active continuing inflammatory disease. Stop inflammation and joint destruction
When is it best to use DMARDS?
Early and agressively
What is methotrexate?
A DMARD. Also used as an anti cancer agent
Side effects and adverse effects of methotrexate?
What are some nonpharmolacological agents used for osteoporosis prevention?
Vitamin D and calcium. Vit D facilitates absorption of calcium from GI tract.
-weight bearing exercises
dec alcohol consumption
decrease caffeine intake
What are Biphosphonates?
Inhibit osteoclastic bone resorption without affecting bone formation. Used for osteoporosis
What hormone is used to diminish osteoclastic activity?
What is another name for Diazepam?
Valium, muscle relaxant
How does diazepam act on the body?
Acts centrally in supra spinal centers and spinal intraneurons
What is diazepam used for?
Treating muscle spasm
What is tizanidine?
A muscle relaxant, aka zanaflex
How does tizanidine act?
Acts in the spinal cord as an adrenergic agonist
What is tizanidine used to treat?
Used to treat spasticity
What is a side effect of tizanidine?
What type of medications are clorzoxaone, cyclobenzaprine (flexeril), carisoprodol, methocarbamol(robaxin), and orphenadrine?
What is baclofen?
Muscle Relaxant which is used to treat spasticity or reduce painful flexor or extensor spasm.
What does Baclofan act on?
inhibits release of neurotransmitters in the brain and spinal cord
What are some side effects of baclofan
increased seizures if pt has epilepsy
What is dantrolene?
Muscle relaxant used for chronic spasticity
Where does dantrolene act?
Acts locally on muscle fibers to block release of calcium
What are the main categories of antihypertensive medications?
Calcium channel blockers
How do Alpha-1 blockers work?
Block alpha-1 receptors in smooth muscle allowing arterial and venous vasodilation
How do alpha-2 blockers work?
stimulate alpha-2 receptors in the brainstem which decrease sympathetic NS signals. Results:
decreased HR, peripheral resistance, blood pressure
How do beta-blockers work?
decrease cardiac output by slowing HR
What are the different types of beta blockers?
nonselective beta blockers-block beta-1 and 2 receptors
selective beta blockers-block Beta 1 receptors only
Who should not be on beta blockers?
angina, COP and diabetes
Side effects of beta blockers
mental status changes (depression and disorientation)
What are calcium channel blockers?
inhibit the influx of calcium ions to myocardial and vascular cells. contractile process is inhibited allowing vasodilatation in coronary arteries and decrease peripheral resistance to blood flow.
Side effects of calcium channel blockers?
flushing, headache, ankle swelling, reflex tachycardia
How do diuretics work?
incerases urine volume resulting in decreased vascular resistance.