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Flashcards in Pharm Review Deck (48):
1

What is bioavailability?

The % of medication that reaches systemic circulation

2

What are the different methods of absorption?

oral
Sublingual
inhalation
Intramuscular
Subcutaneous
Intravenous
Transdermal/topical

3

What re the the 4 stages of the medication cycle?

absorption
distribution
Metabolism
elimination

4

When is a drug "active"?

When it is unbound to to a protein

5

What happens if there is too much unbound drug in the system?

drug toxicity

6

Where are sites that drugs may accumulate and be slowly released?

sites of fat stores

7

What is Asprin and what are its effects?

inhibits COX, thus inhibiting prostaglandin synthesis
-Antipyretic
-Analgesic
anti-inflammatory
antiplatelet

8

What are some side effects of Asprin?

GI upset

9

Adverse effects of Asprin?

prolonged bleeding times
GI ulceration
Allergic reactions

10

What is the common name for NSAID's?

Ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin)

11

What are the effects of ibuprofen?

Antipyretic
analgesic
anti-inflammatory

12

What are the side effects of ibuprofen?

fluid retention and edema (problem in renal dysfx, CHF)
GI irritation

13

What are some drug reactions

Coumadin
Alcohol
Decreases lithium clearance (inc blood levels)

14

What are glucocortorticosteroids used for?

RA
DJD

15

What are some side effects/adverse effects for glucocortorticosteroids?

Adrenal insufficienct
Immunosuppression
Depression, anxiety, euphoria, "mood swings"
cataracts
cushingoid state(moon face) acne stretch marks on extremities
fluid retention
hyperglycemia
osteoporosis
myopathy
GI disturbances

16

what are three other agents used with arthritis?

capsacian
glucosamine
chondroitin

17

What are DMARD's used for?

active continuing inflammatory disease. Stop inflammation and joint destruction

18

When is it best to use DMARDS?

Early and agressively

19

What is methotrexate?

A DMARD. Also used as an anti cancer agent

20

Side effects and adverse effects of methotrexate?

hepatic dysfxn
GI disturbances
Blood complications

21

What are some nonpharmolacological agents used for osteoporosis prevention?

Vitamin D and calcium. Vit D facilitates absorption of calcium from GI tract.
-weight bearing exercises
-stopping smoking
dec alcohol consumption
decrease caffeine intake

22

What are Biphosphonates?

Inhibit osteoclastic bone resorption without affecting bone formation. Used for osteoporosis

23

Common Biphosphonates?

Alendronate
Etidronate
Teriparatide

24

What hormone is used to diminish osteoclastic activity?

calcitonin

25

What is another name for Diazepam?

Valium, muscle relaxant

26

How does diazepam act on the body?

Acts centrally in supra spinal centers and spinal intraneurons

27

What is diazepam used for?

Treating muscle spasm

28

What is tizanidine?

A muscle relaxant, aka zanaflex

29

How does tizanidine act?

Acts in the spinal cord as an adrenergic agonist

30

What is tizanidine used to treat?

Used to treat spasticity

31

What is a side effect of tizanidine?

hypotension

32

What type of medications are clorzoxaone, cyclobenzaprine (flexeril), carisoprodol, methocarbamol(robaxin), and orphenadrine?

Muscle relaxants

33

What is baclofen?

Muscle Relaxant which is used to treat spasticity or reduce painful flexor or extensor spasm.

34

What does Baclofan act on?

inhibits release of neurotransmitters in the brain and spinal cord

35

What are some side effects of baclofan

drowsiness
increased seizures if pt has epilepsy

36

What is dantrolene?

Muscle relaxant used for chronic spasticity

37

Where does dantrolene act?

Acts locally on muscle fibers to block release of calcium

38

What are the main categories of antihypertensive medications?

Alpha-Adrenergic blockers
Beta-adrenergic blockers
Calcium channel blockers
Diuretics

39

How do Alpha-1 blockers work?

Block alpha-1 receptors in smooth muscle allowing arterial and venous vasodilation

40

How do alpha-2 blockers work?

stimulate alpha-2 receptors in the brainstem which decrease sympathetic NS signals. Results:
decreased HR, peripheral resistance, blood pressure

41

How do beta-blockers work?

decrease cardiac output by slowing HR

42

What are the different types of beta blockers?

nonselective beta blockers-block beta-1 and 2 receptors
selective beta blockers-block Beta 1 receptors only

43

Who should not be on beta blockers?

angina, COP and diabetes

44

Side effects of beta blockers

sleep disturbances
mental status changes (depression and disorientation)
Cold extremeties

45

What are calcium channel blockers?

inhibit the influx of calcium ions to myocardial and vascular cells. contractile process is inhibited allowing vasodilatation in coronary arteries and decrease peripheral resistance to blood flow.

46

Side effects of calcium channel blockers?

significant bradycardia
flushing, headache, ankle swelling, reflex tachycardia

47

How do diuretics work?

incerases urine volume resulting in decreased vascular resistance.

48

What medication is used for angina?

Nitrates which cause peripheral vasodilatation which causes blood to pool in legs