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Flashcards in Pathology Deck (31):

What is dyalisis and what is it used for?

Used to clean out toxic end products of metabolism (urea, creatinine ,and others) during renal failure when the kidneys are unable to do it themselves


How does hemodialysis work?

blood is removed from the body and filtered across a membrane to remove impurities


Where should you avoid vitals in a patient receiving dialysis?

Avoid taking blood pressure in the arm with an arteriovenous fistula (connects the radial artery and cephalic vein used for long term dialysis access.)


What type of risk would a patient on dialysis have with exercise?

Risk of hemorrhage due to being on anticoagulant during treatment


When is PT best done for patients undergoing dialysis?

best done on days off from dialysis


what is the most effective agent in dealing with treatment areas contaminated by body fluids of a patient with HIV/AIDS



How may a patient appear if they are undergoing anticoagulation therapy and their platelet count is low?

Ecchymosis, or hemorrhage/bruise


What is an indolent wound?

A long standing often painless wound that is very slow to heal and is a characteristic of a venous insufficiency ulcer


What is induration?

The hardening of the skin around an ulcer, often occurring with pressure sores or venous insufficiency ulcers.


What is maceration?

The softening and deterioration of the skin or wound as a result of moisture


What is a purulent wound?

A wound that contains pus and is infected


What is cellulitis? What is its appearance?

An inflammation of the connective tissue frequently accompanied by infection.
Tends to be widespread and poorly defined


How can you tell if it someone has cellulitis?

The skin over the area is hot, red and edematous often resembling the skin of an orange


What is the treatment for cellulitis?

Antibiotics, elevation of the part and cool wet dressings


What is dermatitis? What is its appearance?

Superficial inflammation of the skin, characterized by vesicles (when acute), redness, edema, oozing, crusting, scaling and usually itching.


How do you diagnose dermatitis?

skin changes and patient history


What is a DVT? what happens if it breaks free?

an abnormal formation of a blood clot in a deep vein. If it breaks free it may become a pulmonary embolism.


How do you differentiate DVT from other diagnoses?

Skin may appear cyanotic, may be warm door or of normal temp
pain tenderness or swelling and a positive venogram


What is hemophilia?

A bleeding disorder that is inherited and has to do with clotting factor deficiencies.


What is hepatitis?

Inflammation of the liver that may be caused by viral or bacterial infections or chemical agents.


How is hepatitis transmitted?

from blood, bodily fluids or body tissues, through oral or sexual contact or contaminated needles (hep b)


What is herpes zoster?

Acute central nervous system viral infection involving the dorsal root ganglion


What are the characteristics of herpes zoster?

vesicular eruption and neuralgic pain in the cutaneous areas supplied by peripheral sensory nerves arising along the infected dermatome or myotome


What is intermittent claudication?

symptom of arterial insufficiency that results in ischemia to the excessing muscle.


How is intermittent claudication relieved?

resting the exercising extremity


What are the differentials for intermittent claudication?

-weak peripheral pulses or absent, with Bruits
-limb elevation will result in pallor and dependent position will cause rub or
-BP measurements will be weaker in affected extremity


What is Lyme disease?

An inflammatory disease caused by a spirochete transmitted to humans by a tick bite

-common in the northeast


What is the differential diagnosis for Lyme disease?

"Bulls eye" rash and flu-like symptoms. Later developments can include arthritis (knees usually) neurological disorders such as neuritis, ataxia or meningitis and cardiac abnormalities.


What is Psoriasis? What can it be associated with?

A chronic disease of the skin with erythematous plaques covered with a silvery scale. Common on scalp, knees, elbows and genitalia. May be associated with psoriatic arthritis and joint pain.


What is scleroderma?

progressive systemic sclerosis, a chronic diffuse disease of connective tissues causing fibrosis of the skin, joints, blood, vessels and internal organs.


What is scleroderma usually accompanied by?

Accompanied by Raynaud's phenomenon, which is excessively reduced blood flow due to cold or emotional stress.