Flashcards in Neuroanatomy Deck (67):
What is the function of the dural partitions?
Restrict rotatory displacement of the brain
What drains into the dural venous sinuses?
veins draining the brain
diploic veins that drain the layers of spongy skull bone
emissary veins from the scalp
The middle meningeal artery is a branch of the
The middle meningeal artery enters the skull via
The middle meningeal artery lies in which space?
The cerebral veins lie
in the subarachnoid space
Tearing of the cerebral veins leads to accumulation of blood in the
subdural space, where they enter the superior sagittal sinus
What are the borders of the scalp?
External occipital protuberance posteriorly to the supraorbital margins anteriorly, zygomatic arches laterally
What are the layers of the scalp from external to internal?
S - skin
C - connective tissue w/neurovascular structures
A - aponeurosis of occipitofrontalis
L - loose connective tissue (allows SCA to slide on skull)
P - pericranium/periosteum
What vessels anastamose in the connective tissue layer of the scalp?
Internal and external carotid arteries
Why do scalp wounds bleed profusely?
1. rich anastamosis of carotid arteries in the connective tissue layer
2. gape due to tension from frontalis and occipitalis if aponeurosis is severed
3. fibrous septae of the connective tissue layer adhere to vessels and hold them open, restricting constriction that promotes clotting
drain superficial scalp veins into the superior sagittal sinus
drain the diploe layer of the skull into the superior sagittal sinus
What are the layers of the face external to internal?
Muscles of facial expression
Muscles of facial expression are derived from what developmental structure?
2nd pharyngeal arch
What nerve supplies the 2nd pharyngeal arch structures/muscles of facial expression?
CNVII - Facial
What cranial nerve supplies the skin of the face (anterior to the ears?)
CNV - Trigeminal
What are the 3 branches of the trigeminal nerve?
What supplies the skin of the scalp posterior to the ears?
Dorsal rami of cervical spinal nerves C2 (back of head) & C3 (neck); C1 does not have sensory fibres
CNV V1 travels through
superior orbital fissure
CNV V2 travels through
CNV V3 travels through
What are the branches of the internal carotid that supply the forehead?
supraorbital and supratrochlear
What branches of the external carotid artery supply the face?
facial artery, superficial temporal artery, posterior auricular artery, occipital artery
What vein drains the majority of the face?
Emissary veins from the triangle of the face drains into
the facial vein or cavernous sinus
What is the lymphatic drainage of the face?
Pre-auricular and parotid nodes
all drain to deep cervical nodes
What is the parotid gland?
serous salivary gland
Where does the parotid gland sit?
Below the zygomatic process of the temporal bone, in front of the mastoid process and ear, above the angle of the mandible, behind masseter, superficial to the styloid process
What is the course of the parotid duct?
Over masseter, pierces buccinator, enters mouth at second upper molar
What structures lie within the parotid gland (superficial to deep)?
CN VII - Facial
external carotid artery
parotid lymph nodes (scattered)
What are the 5 branches of the pes anserinus?
Motor cranial nerve nuclei are found where in the brainstem?
Sensory cranial nerve nuclei are found where in the brainstem?
Motor cranial nerve columns from medial to lateral are
Sensory cranial nerve columns from medial to lateral are
Somatic motor cranial nerves
III, IV, VI, XII
Branchial motor cranial nerves
V, VII, IX, X, XI
Visceral motor cranial nerves
III, VII, IX, X
What comprises nucleus ambiguus?
motor nucleus of IX (stylopharyngeus) and X (levator palati)
Nucleus ambiguus is found
In the branchial motor column at the medulla posterior to the inferior olive
What comprises nucleus solitarius?
Rostral (gustatory): VII, IX, X afferents from taste buds
Caudal (visceral sensory): X afferents from the heart and abdominal viscera, IX afferents from baro and chemoreceptors in the carotid body and sinus
Where is nucleus solitarius found?
In the visceral afferent sensory column at the medulla
Nucleus solitarius receives input from which cranial nerves?
visceral afferents VII, IX, X
Nucleus ambiguus receives input from which cranial nerves?
motor IX, X
Anterior cerebral artery supplies
medial frontal and parietal cortex (including M1 and S1)
Anterior choroidal arteries supply
deep lateral structures like the optic tract, lateral ventricles, hippocampus
Anterior communicating artery gives off branches to what?
anterior perforating branches to the optic chiasm and anterior hypothalamus
Anterior inferior cerebellar artery supplies
Anterior inferior cerebellum
Anterior spinal artery supplies
antero-medial medulla and ventromedial spinal cord with aortic branches (intercostal and lumbar arteries) and posterior spinal arteries via circumferential anastamoses;
join aortic contributions (intercostal, lumbar) to anterior spinal artery via intervertebral foramen
Basilar artery supplies
Opthalmic artery is a branch of
Internal carotid gives rise to what branches?
Opthalmic, anterior choroidal, middle and anterior cerebral
Lenticulostriate arteries are a branch of
Middle cerebral artery
Lenticulostriate arteries supply
basal ganglia and internal capsule
Middle cerebral artery supplies
most of the lateral cortex (frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital, insula) including M1 and S1 to all but the lower limb, parieto-occipital association areas and language areas
Opthalmic artery supplies
eye including retina, top of nasal cavity, frontal scalp
Posterior cerebral artery supplies
medial and inferior aspects of temporal and occipital lobes (including V1), most of midbrain; perforating branches to posterior hypothalamus and thalamus
Posterior inferior cerebellar artery is a branch of
Posterior inferior cerebellar artery supplies
posterior inferior cerebellum; postero/dorso-lateral medulla
Posterior spinal arteries supply
spinal cord w/anterior spinal artery
Superior cerebellar artery is a branch of
Superior cerebellar artery supplies
superior cerebellum and colliculi
Anterior inferior cerebellar artery is a branch of
Vertebral artery is a branch of