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Anatomy (Karen) > Neuroanatomy > Flashcards

Flashcards in Neuroanatomy Deck (67):
1

What is the function of the dural partitions?

Restrict rotatory displacement of the brain

2

What drains into the dural venous sinuses?

veins draining the brain
diploic veins that drain the layers of spongy skull bone
emissary veins from the scalp

3

The middle meningeal artery is a branch of the

maxillary artery

4

The middle meningeal artery enters the skull via

foramen spinosum

5

The middle meningeal artery lies in which space?

epidural

6

The cerebral veins lie

in the subarachnoid space

7

Tearing of the cerebral veins leads to accumulation of blood in the

subdural space, where they enter the superior sagittal sinus

8

What are the borders of the scalp?

External occipital protuberance posteriorly to the supraorbital margins anteriorly, zygomatic arches laterally

9

What are the layers of the scalp from external to internal?

S - skin
C - connective tissue w/neurovascular structures
A - aponeurosis of occipitofrontalis
L - loose connective tissue (allows SCA to slide on skull)
P - pericranium/periosteum

10

What vessels anastamose in the connective tissue layer of the scalp?

Internal and external carotid arteries

11

Why do scalp wounds bleed profusely?

1. rich anastamosis of carotid arteries in the connective tissue layer
2. gape due to tension from frontalis and occipitalis if aponeurosis is severed
3. fibrous septae of the connective tissue layer adhere to vessels and hold them open, restricting constriction that promotes clotting

12

Emissary veins

drain superficial scalp veins into the superior sagittal sinus

13

Diploic veins

drain the diploe layer of the skull into the superior sagittal sinus

14

What are the layers of the face external to internal?

Skin
Connective tissue
Muscles of facial expression
Fascia

15

Muscles of facial expression are derived from what developmental structure?

2nd pharyngeal arch

16

What nerve supplies the 2nd pharyngeal arch structures/muscles of facial expression?

CNVII - Facial

17

What cranial nerve supplies the skin of the face (anterior to the ears?)

CNV - Trigeminal

18

What are the 3 branches of the trigeminal nerve?

Opthalmic (V1)
Maxillary (V2)
Mandibular (V3)

19

What supplies the skin of the scalp posterior to the ears?

Dorsal rami of cervical spinal nerves C2 (back of head) & C3 (neck); C1 does not have sensory fibres

20

CNV V1 travels through

superior orbital fissure

21

CNV V2 travels through

foramen rotundum

22

CNV V3 travels through

foramen ovale

23

What are the branches of the internal carotid that supply the forehead?

supraorbital and supratrochlear

24

What branches of the external carotid artery supply the face?

facial artery, superficial temporal artery, posterior auricular artery, occipital artery

25

What vein drains the majority of the face?

Facial

26

Emissary veins from the triangle of the face drains into

the facial vein or cavernous sinus

27

What is the lymphatic drainage of the face?

Submental nodes
Submandibular nodes
Pre-auricular and parotid nodes
Mastoid nodes
Occipital nodes

all drain to deep cervical nodes

28

What is the parotid gland?

serous salivary gland

29

Where does the parotid gland sit?

Below the zygomatic process of the temporal bone, in front of the mastoid process and ear, above the angle of the mandible, behind masseter, superficial to the styloid process

30

What is the course of the parotid duct?

Over masseter, pierces buccinator, enters mouth at second upper molar

31

What structures lie within the parotid gland (superficial to deep)?

CN VII - Facial
retromandibular vein
external carotid artery
parotid lymph nodes (scattered)

32

What are the 5 branches of the pes anserinus?

Temporal
Zygomatic
Buccal
Mandibular
Cervical

33

Motor cranial nerve nuclei are found where in the brainstem?

medially

34

Sensory cranial nerve nuclei are found where in the brainstem?

laterally

35

Motor cranial nerve columns from medial to lateral are

Somatic
Branchial
Visceral

36

Sensory cranial nerve columns from medial to lateral are

Visceral
Somatic
Special

37

Somatic motor cranial nerves

III, IV, VI, XII

38

Branchial motor cranial nerves

V, VII, IX, X, XI

39

Visceral motor cranial nerves

III, VII, IX, X

40

What comprises nucleus ambiguus?

motor nucleus of IX (stylopharyngeus) and X (levator palati)

41

Nucleus ambiguus is found

In the branchial motor column at the medulla posterior to the inferior olive

42

What comprises nucleus solitarius?

Rostral (gustatory): VII, IX, X afferents from taste buds
Caudal (visceral sensory): X afferents from the heart and abdominal viscera, IX afferents from baro and chemoreceptors in the carotid body and sinus

43

Where is nucleus solitarius found?

In the visceral afferent sensory column at the medulla

44

Nucleus solitarius receives input from which cranial nerves?

visceral afferents VII, IX, X

45

Nucleus ambiguus receives input from which cranial nerves?

motor IX, X

46

Anterior cerebral artery supplies

medial frontal and parietal cortex (including M1 and S1)

47

Anterior choroidal arteries supply

deep lateral structures like the optic tract, lateral ventricles, hippocampus

48

Anterior communicating artery gives off branches to what?

anterior perforating branches to the optic chiasm and anterior hypothalamus

49

Anterior inferior cerebellar artery supplies

Anterior inferior cerebellum

50

Anterior spinal artery supplies

antero-medial medulla and ventromedial spinal cord with aortic branches (intercostal and lumbar arteries) and posterior spinal arteries via circumferential anastamoses;

51

Radicular arteries

join aortic contributions (intercostal, lumbar) to anterior spinal artery via intervertebral foramen

52

Basilar artery supplies

Pons

53

Opthalmic artery is a branch of

Internal carotid

54

Internal carotid gives rise to what branches?

Opthalmic, anterior choroidal, middle and anterior cerebral

55

Lenticulostriate arteries are a branch of

Middle cerebral artery

56

Lenticulostriate arteries supply

basal ganglia and internal capsule

57

Middle cerebral artery supplies

most of the lateral cortex (frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital, insula) including M1 and S1 to all but the lower limb, parieto-occipital association areas and language areas

58

Opthalmic artery supplies

eye including retina, top of nasal cavity, frontal scalp

59

Posterior cerebral artery supplies

medial and inferior aspects of temporal and occipital lobes (including V1), most of midbrain; perforating branches to posterior hypothalamus and thalamus

60

Posterior inferior cerebellar artery is a branch of

Vertebral artery

61

Posterior inferior cerebellar artery supplies

posterior inferior cerebellum; postero/dorso-lateral medulla

62

Posterior spinal arteries supply

spinal cord w/anterior spinal artery

63

Superior cerebellar artery is a branch of

basilar artery

64

Superior cerebellar artery supplies

superior cerebellum and colliculi

65

Anterior inferior cerebellar artery is a branch of

basilar artery

66

Vertebral artery is a branch of

subclavian

67

Vertebral artery supplies

ventrolateral medulla (olives) and spinal cord