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Flashcards in Neuroanatomy Deck (65):
1

Corpus callosoum

thick curved band of white matter
Located ventral to mid-sagittal cortical surface
Commisural fibers
Allows connection between 2 hemispheres
Genu, splenium, body, rostrum
Continuous with lamina terminalis (rostrum)

2

® Enlarged genu

= frontal lobe growth in humans

3

Fornix

Arching fiber bundle- prominent
Hippocampus to mammilary bodies connection
Ventral to corpus callosum
Curves ventrally into diencephalon to form columns of fornix

4

Epidural hematoma

□ Between skull and outer dural layer
□ Biconvex shape- does not cross sutures
□ Usually middle meningeal artery involved

5

Subdural hematoma

□ Between inner layer of dura and arachnoid
□ Crosses sutures
□ Crescentic shape
□ Whip-lash, shaken baby syndrome
□ Increase in ICP- damage to brain tissue

6

Subarachnoid hemorrhage

□ Between arachnoid and pia
□ Follows sulci

7

Meningiomas

□ May occur intracranially or within spinal canal
□ Arise from arachnoid layer
□ Greatest potential for total removal and care
□ Long clinical history usually
□ Depending on location, may experience mental deterioration, limb weakness, sensory abberation, visual loss…

8

Longitudinal fissure

separates cerebral hemispheres

9

Falx cerebri

infolding of dura mater, contains inferior and superior sagittal sinuses

10

Tentorium cerebelli

contains the transverse sinus, lies between cerebrum and cerebellum

11

Gyrus (cerebrum)

folium (cerebellum)

12

Brainstem

protrudes caudally from cerebrum. medulla, pons, midbrain, thalamus

13

Metencephalon

pons + cerebellum

14

Lateral sulcus

= sylvian fissure- largest of the sulci, separates temporal from frontal and parietal lobes

15

Central sulcus

= Rolandic fissure- vertical sulcus, runs uninterrupted from longitudinal fissure to lateral sulcus

16

Preoccipital notch

subtle indentation created by bony tentorium

17

Middle cerebellar peduncle

run laterally along ventral surface of pons, connect pons to the cerebellum

18

Pyramids

run on medulla, paramedian ridges

19

Olives

ovoid elevations lateral to pyramids on medulla

20

Cerebral peduncles

runs into rostral end of pons from deep in cerebrum. Lies in most ventral portion of mesencephalon (midbrain). Oculomotor nerve (III) exits from here

21

Interpeduncular fossa

spans diencephalon and mesencephalon. Bordered by pons, cerebral peduncles, obtic chiasm and tracts

22

Tuber cinereum

within the interpeduncular fossa, immediately behind optic chiasm

23

Lamina terminalis

portion of prosencephalic vesicle, forms anterior wall of third ventricle

24

Fornix

found ventral to the corpus callosum. Contains fibers from structures in temporal lobe running to diencephalon (mammillary bodies)

25

Septum pellucidum

membrane between corpus callosum and fornix. Lies between the lateral ventricles

26

Anterior commissure

contains fibers traveling between frontal and temporal poles of each hemisphere

27

Interventricular foramen of Monro

lateral ventricles w/ third ventricle, behind column of the cornix

28

Diencephalon

= hypothalamus + dorsal thalamus + epithalamus

29

Hypothalamus

triangular region ventral to anterior commissure. Controls autonomic functions and modulates some related aspects of behavior: emotional responses, feeding/drinking, reproduction

30

Epithalamus

represented by stria medullaris, habenular nuclei, pineal gland

31

Cerebral aqueduct (of Sylvius)

connected to third ventricle

32

Fourth ventricle

where CSF exits the brain. Foramen of Magendie and foramina of Luschka connect it to the subarachnoid space

33

Major blood supply to the brain

vertebral arteries (infero-posterior regions) and internal carotid arteries (rostral regions)

34

Branches of the carotid artery

posterior communicating artery, opthalmic artery, anterior choroidal artery, anterior cerebral, middle crebral arteries

35

Branches of the middle cerebral arteries

lenticulo-striate arteries. Supply the anterior limb of the internal capsule and basal ganglia. Most common sites of stroke

36

Branches of vertebral arteries

anterior spinal artery, PICA, basilar --> anterior inferior cerebellar, labrynthine, pontine, superior cerebellar arteries, posterior cerebral

37

filum terminale

extension of pia matter from conus medullar is to coccygeal ligament

38

T2W

fluid is white. Good for assessing gray matter

39

T1W

fluid is dark. Arrow pointing to rootlet. Harder to see contents of thecal sac

40

Dorsal median sulcus (usually closed)

Separates R and L dorsal funiculus

41

Dorsal funiculus

separated from central canal by gray commissure. Pathway that conveys fine discriminatory somatosensory information, conscious proprioception, vibratory sensation

Fasciculus gracilis: all spinal levels, lateral

Fasciculus cuneatus; cervical and upper thoracic levels, medial

42

Dorsal fasciculus of Lissaur

superficially-located pale region, axons w/ little or no myelin.

43

Fasciculus proprious

white matter that rings the gay matter. Contains axons that interconnect different spinal cord levels

44

Ventral commissure

spans below central canal, axons of dorsal horn cells that form second order neurons in ALS system. Conveys pain, temperature, crude touch sensation

45

Dorsal horns

Substantia gelatinosa: pale staning in Weigert

Posteromarginal zone- superficial to gelatinosa. Thin, cell poor layer

Nucleus proprious- deep to gelatinosa. Forming base of dorsal horn

46

Weigert stained section

myelin stains darkly (white matter is super dark)

47

Nissl stain

cell body stains darkly (gray matter is darker)

48

Proprioceptive tracts

Dorsal spinocerebellar tract (DSCT)

Ventral spinocerebellar tract (VSCT)

Form superficial rim of lateral funiculus

49

Dorsal spinocerebellar tract (DSCT)

From lateral border of dorsal root entry zone to ~central canal

50

Ventral spinocerebellar tract (VSCT)

Extends ventrally to transition from ventral to lateral funiculus

51

Spinothalamic tract (anterolateral system ALS)

Conveys pain, temperature, crude touch information
Located deep in lateral and ventral funiculus’
Wraps around the lateral border of the ventral horn

52

Lateral vestibulospinal tract

Originates in lateral vestibular nucleus (Deiters nucleus)
Regulating muscle tone and reflex response to head movement
Located at ventral border of ventral funiculus- most levels

53

Cervical (C1-8)

Lower: enlarged dorsal and ventral horns
White matter dominates
Dorsal funiculus w/ gracilis and cuneatus
Central gray commisure thin stripe spanning the midline

54

Thoracic (T 1-12)

Narrow dorsal and ventral horns (except T1)
White matter dominates
Lateral norm- contains intermediolateral cell column: preganglionic sympathetic
Nucleus dorsalis (Clarke’s column, nucleus thoracicus)- T1s-L2
Located at medial base of dorsal horn
Relay of proprioceptive information about the lower limb
Fasciculus cuneatus in upper thoracic sections

55

Lumbar (L 1-5)

Large dorsal and ventral horns
Large lateral outpocketings of ventral horns
Constricted central gray region
Only fasciculus gracilis- laterally-directed wing

56

Sacral (S 1-5)

Low white:gray ratio- gray matter dominates
Only funiculus gracilis
Thick central gray area spanning the midline
Large dorsal and ventral horns
Ventral horns don’t bay out laterally
Cauda Equina nerve roots adjacent

57

anterior cingulate gyrus

Located in the prefrontal cortex (PFC)
Center for saliency

Allows a person to prioritize

Exerts control over the midbrain (the "conscience" or the "mind") allowing one to suppress urges that, if not suppressed, could lead to socially-unacceptable outcomes

58

prefrontal cortex

responsible for decision making.

59

orbitofrontal cortex

Center for impulse control

60

amygdala

Emotional Center
Stores emotional memories about circumstances of drug use

61

hippocampus

Memory Center
Organizes and stores information about circumstances around drug use

62

drugs that increase GABA

alcohol, tranquilizers

63

drugs that decrease GABA

caffeine

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drugs that increase glutamate

PCP, caffeine

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drugs that decrease glutamate

alcohol