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31

Describe This Receptor: 

[ Free Nerve Ending ]

1. Is it Encapsulated? 

3. Function (2)

4. Distribution (2)

[Free Nerve Ending] Receptor: 

1. NOT Encapsulated ("Free Hairy Merkel")

3. Pain/Temp

4. Deep skin & viscera

32

Describe This Receptor: 

[ Merkel's Disk]

1. Is it Encapsulated? 

3. Function

4. Distribution [4]

[Merkel's Disk] Receptor: 

1. NOT Encapsulated ("Free Hairy Merkel​")

3. Touch

4. Feet/hands/genitalia / lips 

33

Describe This Receptor: 

[ Hair Follicles]

1. Is it Encapsulated? 

3. Function

4. Distribution 

[Hair Follicles] Receptor: 

1. NOT Encapsulated ("Free Hairy Merkel")

3. Touch

4. Anything with Hair

34

Describe This Receptor: 

[ Meissner's Corpuscle ]

1. Is it Encapsulated? 

3. Function

4. Distribution [4]

[Meissner's Corpuscle] Receptor: 

1. Encapsulated !!

3. 2 Point Discrimination 

4. [hairLESS Skin] / joints / ligaments / fingertips 

35

Describe This Receptor: 

[ Pacinian Corpuscle ]

1. Is it Encapsulated? ]

3. Function

4. Distribution [4]

[Pacinian Corpuscle] Receptor: 

1. Encapsulated !!

3. Vibration

4. Fingers & Toes / mesenteries / peritoneum  

36

Describe This Receptor: 

[ Ruffini Ending ]

1. Is it Encapsulated? 

3. Function

4. Distribution 

[Ruffini Ending] Receptor: 

1. Encapsulated !!

3. Stretch / pressure 

4. Dermis 

37

Describe This Receptor: 

[ Joint Receptor ] 

1. Is it Encapsulated?  

3. Function

4. Distribution [2]

[Joint] Receptor: 

1. Encapsulated !!

3. Joint Position  

4. [Joint Capsules] & Ligaments  

38

Describe This Receptor: 

[ Neuromuscular Spindle]

1. Is it Encapsulated? 

3. Function

4. Distribution 

[Neuromuscular Spindle] Receptor: 

1. Encapsulated !!

3. Limb muscle Stretch  

4. Muscles 

39

Describe This Receptor: 

[ Golgi Tendon Organs]

1. Is it Encapsulated? 

3. Function

4. Distribution 

[Golgi Tendon Organs] Receptor: 

1. Encapsulated !!

3. MUSCLE Tension  

4. Muscle tendon Junctions  

40

[Dorsal Posterior Horn] contains the [Substantia gelatinosa] and [Nucleus Proprius] 

Describe the  [Substantia gelatinosa] (3) 

 **[Substantia gelatinosa]** 
ºIs "Pain Gate keeper" & filters sensory information by synapsing on dendrites in  [Nucleus Proprius]

ºHomologous to [spinal trigeminal nucleus] 

ºAxons ascend & descend 1 to 4 segments in [Dorsolateral Fasciculus /Zone of Lissauer]  

41

1. [Pain, temperature, position sense, vibration from skin/body wall and pressure] come from the ___ component

2. [Motor projections to Viscera, Glands & blood vessels] = ____ component 

3. Pain, sensations of FULLNESS/STRETCH come from the ____ component 

*Alar Plates derive into the ____/____ root
Basal Plates derive into the ___/_____ root

1. [Pain, temperature, position sense, vibration from skin/body wall and pressure] come from the GSA component

2.  [Motor projections to Viscera, Glands & blood vessels] = GVE component 

3. Pain, sensations of FULLNESS/STRETCH from viscera come from the GVA component 

*Alar Plates Derive into SENSORY/DORSAL ROOT
{Afferent and Alar = Sensory} 

*Basal Plates derive into MOTOR/VENTRAL Root 

42

A: What's special about the CLOSED medulla? 

B: What are the Corpora Quadragemini? How is it related to "SLOW AIM"

C: Describe the 3 Cerebellar Peduncles and what their attached to

D: Which Cerebellar Peduncle DECUSSATES in the Caudal Midbrain? 

A: The CLOSED Medulla is the part of Medulla NOT UNDER 4th Ventricle 

B: [Corpora Quadragemini] are 4 Colliculi tht sit on DORSUM of Midbrain and is AKA [TECUM OF MIDBRAIN]. 
 
**SLOW = SUP colliculi talk with [Lateral geniculate] for Optic "WVision" 
**AIM = Auditory system uses Inferior Colliculi which talks with [MEDIAL geniculate] 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
C:3 Cerebellar Peduncles  
1- **SUP Cerebellar Peduncle = MOSTLY EFFERENT except [Ventral Spinocerebellar tract] and is in midbrain

2-MIDDLE cerebellar Peduncle= LARGEST, is afferent and attaches to Pons

3- inf cerebellar peduncle= afferent and attached to Medulla 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
D: **SUP Cerebellar Peduncle DECUSSATES inbetween [substantia nigra] of caudal MIDBRAIN ...on its way to [Red Nucleus of midbrain]

43

A: [Crus Cerebri Cerebral Peduncles] are on the ______[Dorsal/Ventral]  Midbrain and responsible ......

B: Where does the Infundibulum Stalk sit in relation to the [Crus Cerebri Cerebral Peduncles]? What does it suspend?

C: Cerebellar Peduncles would stain ____ with myelin stain. Why? 

A: [Crus Cerebri Cerebral Peduncles] are on the VENTRAL Midbrain and responsible for connecting Cerebrum with brainstem/spinal cord 

B: Infundibulum Stalk hangs Between [Crus Cerebri Cerebral Peduncles] of midbrain and suspends PITUITARY GLAND ventrally 

C: Cerebellar Peduncles would stain BLACK with myelin stain because they're white fibers lol 

44

A: "Pontocerebellar mossy fibers" 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
C: Describe the Pathway of [Spinal CN11]
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
D: What happens when the _____ ______ ____ squishes [Oculomotor CN3] and why? 

A: "Pontocerebellar mossy fibers" = Cortex fibers that travel to [Pontine Gray Nuclei] --->then contralaterally travel to [MIDDLE Cerebellar Peduncle]  
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

C: [Spinal CN11] goes up thru Foramen Magnum and then goes back out Cranium [Jugular Foramen]  
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
D: When the Temporal Lobe UNCUS squishes [Oculomotor CN3] ---> LATERAL GAZE! (because CN6 Abducens just takes over)   

45

1. Which Artery perfuses the [LATERAL Medulla] and what Parent Artery does it come from? 

2. What's the Name of Dz that occurs when this Artery becomes occluded? 

3. Name the Sx of this dz and what syndrome is causes?  (5)

1. The PICA (Daughter of Vertebral a.) perfuses Lateral Medulla 

2. Can Cause [Lateral Medullary syndrome of Wallenberg]

3. causes ischmia and ---> Lucy Has 2 VPN

Limb Dysmetria ipsilateral- from [inf cereberllar peduncle]

Horner's Syndrome ipsilateral- from [descending sympathetic fibers]

2TVP loss Contralaterally-from [medial lemniscus involvement]

[Vocal Cord/Palatal Weakness] ipsilateral- from [nc. ambiguous] 

[Pain & Temp] impairment ipsilateral face/Contralateral body (STT)- from [descending CN5, n & t] & STT

Nystagmus- from vestibular nc.

46

1) Where is the [Nucleus of Solitary Tract] [NST] located? 

2) What is it responsible for?  (2)
 

1. [NST] Nucleus of Solitary Tract are in the  [Medulla] 

2. Taste [upper NST]  &; GVA Sensation [Lower NST]  
 

47

B: What are these Structures PERFUSED By? 

6. Olive (2) 
7. Basal Bons
8. [Middle cerebellar peduncle] (2) 
9.  [Crus Cerebri Cerebral Peduncle] 
10. .[inf cerebellar peduncle] AKA ___ ____

PERFUSIONS! 
6. Olive perfused by [PICA or actual Parent Vertebral a.]

7. Basal Pons perfused by Basilar a. 

8. [Middle cerebellar peduncle] perfused by [AICA and Basilar a.]

9. [Crus Cerebri Cerebral Peduncle] perfused by PCA {POST cerebral a.}

10 .[inf cerebellar peduncle] (AKA RESTIFORM BODY) perfused by PICA

48

A: [Lower Motor Neurons] are Motor neurons of the ___ & _____ They are arranged into 4 columns and release ____ onto _____ receptors of ____ _____ Lower Motor Neurons are recruited based on __ & ____

B: What are the 4 Column Arrangements and which muscles do they innervate?

A: Lower Motor Neurons are Motor neurons of the Brainstem & Spinal Cord.

They are arranged into 4 columns and release ACETYLCHOLINE onto nicotinic receptors of target m.

Lower Motor Neurons are recruited based on size & Force

B: 4 Column Arrangement:

1. medial LMN-->axial trunk m.

2. Lateral LMN--->Distal Limb m. (extremities)

3. Dorsal LMN--->FLEXORS

4. venTral LMN------->exTensors

49

Describe the Descending pathways for Lower Motor Neurons. These all act as 1 of the ___ ______ in the Spinal Cord

A: Corticospinal tract (lateral)

B: Vestibulospinal tract [2]

C: Reticulospinal tract [2]

D: Tectospinal tract

E: Rubrospinal tract

Descending pathways = CONTROL SYSTEM in spinal cord LMNs

A: Lateral CST=ALL Excitatory (Glutamate is the transmitter)

B: Vestibulospinal= Head mvmnt & postural adjustments  

C: Reticulospinal= locomotion & postural control 

D: Tectospinal = reflex of turning head in response to visual/auditory stimuli

E: Rubrospinal= no significance in humans

50

A: CorticoBULBar tract (AKA ___ tract) is an ____ MOTOR NEURON tht descends ANterior to _____ tract. It usually ends on ____ of the ___ _____ but sometimes ends on _____inside the ____.

B: Name the 3 CN nucleus that do NOT receive DIRECT CorticoBULBar innervation.

A: CorticoBULBar tract (AKA Corticonuclear tract) is an UPPER MOTOR NEURON that descends ANterior to Corticospinal tract. It usually ends on interneurons of [Reticular formation] but sometimes ends on [motor neurons of CN] inside the brainstem.

B: Oculomotor, Trochlear & Abducens nucleus does NOT receive DIRECT CorticoBULBar innervation.

51

Describe The Cortex Origin of Upper Motor Neuron for CN nuclei involving:

1. Chewing ex. Upper Motor Neurons for Chewing (CN__) comes from ____[R vs. BOTH] side(s) of the Cortex before reaching the Nucleus

2. Facial Droop vs. Bell's Palsy

3. [speaking & swallowing]

4. tongue mvmnt

Cortex Origin of Upper Motor Neuron for CN nuclei involving:

1. Chewing ex. UMN for Chewing (CN5) comes from [Both BUT More of 1 side] before reaching Nucleus 

2. Facial Droop vs. Bell's Palsy: UMN come from BOTH Cortex before reaching CN7 Nucleus --> ONLY 1 LMN Innervates Entire Face ipsilaterally

Facial Droop= Lesion of Facial UMN

BeLLs Palsy= Lesion of Facial LMN = complete face droop

3. [speaking & swallowing]: UMN come from BOTH Cortex before reaching CN9 and CN10 Nucleus 

4. tongue mvmnt: UMN comes from [Both BUT More of 1 side Cortex] before reaching CN12 Nucleus

52

What are Betz cells? 

Make up 3% of [CST-Corticospinal Tract] and are concentrated there

Primary Motor Cortex makes up 50% of CST and the rest comes from [Adjacent Frontal motor and Parietal areas]

53

Area 44 = ______

Area 22 = ______

Area 41 = ______ 

Hearing is ______[unilateral/Bilateral] above the cochlear nucleus 

**99% of hearing comes from ______[Outer/inner] row of hair cells 
What is the Other row for? 

Area 44 = Broca’s

Area 22 = Wernicke’s

Area 41 = Heschel’s Gyrus / Primary Auditory Cortex 

Hearing is BILATERAL above the cochlear nucleus = why it’s hard to knock out

**99% of hearing comes from inner row
Outer row = displacement sensitive so controls tectorial membrane 

54

A: The _____ Artery (_____ circulation) perfuses MOST of the CEREBRUM.

It bifurcates into the ______ and ______ artery

B: What are the 3 daughter branches of this Artery?

The INTERNAL CAROTID Artery (ANTERIOR circulation) perfuses MOST of Cerebrum (70%). (Vertebral a. perfuse 30%)

It bifurcates into..... [Anterior Cerebral a.]---->medial cortex and [middle cerebral a.]-->lateral cortex

B: Daughter branches: 1) ophthalmic artery 2) ANT Choroidal a. 3) POST communicating a.

55

A: The _____ system (______circulation) perfuses Brainstem, Cerebellum & Spinal Cord. It Bifurcates into ____ cerebral arteries.

B: Describe this system

C: What are the daughter branches for each of these Arteries?

The VERTEBROBASILAR system (POSTERIOR circulation) perfuses Brainstem, Cerebellum & Spinal Cord.

B: 2 Vertebral a. Join---> 1 Basilar ARtery-->Bifurcates into PCA [POST cerebral a.]

C: 

*Basilar branches = [(AICA) ANT inf. cerebellar a.] & [(SCA)SUP cerebellar a.]

**Vertebral branches = PAP! (, ASA PSA, PICA) -ANT Spinal a. -POST Spinal a. -POST inferior cerebellar a.

56

A: 80% of Strokes arise from occlusion in the ____ a. which is a bifurcated branch of the ______ Artery. What part of the brain is perfused by this bifurcated branch?

B: What part of the Brain does the [POST cerebral a.] perfuse? [2]

80% of strokesmiddle cerebral a.] which is a bifurcated branch of INTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY.

[middle cerebral a.] perfuses lateral cortex

B: [POST cerebral a.] perfuses Occipital lobe & Temporal Lobes (memory lost)

57

A: The Circle of Willis Interconnects the ____ and ____ circulations. How does it do this exactly?

B: How is it related to perfusion of deep cerebral structures? (2)

C: What are the Anterior/Posterior Perforated Substance?

{Circle of Willis} Interconnects ANTERIOR and POSTERIOR circulations. It forms 1. [ANT communicating a.] between the two [ANT cerebral a.] and [POST communicating a.] between [Internal carotid] and [POST cerebral a.] 

B: [Circle of Willis] surrounds brain base it gives rise to small perforating ganglion arteries (via  MCA) called [lenticulostriate a. ] --perfuse---> [deep cerebral structures (internal capsule/basal ganglia/thalamus)] 

C: entry points of perforating a. on Brain Base

58

Blood Brain Barriers are formed by _____ ___ _____which use ___ junctions between ____ cells to filter blood coming from _______.

B: What are Pericyte? Where is it located (2)? 

Blood Brain Barriers are formed by [ASTROCYTE GLIAL CELLS] which use TIGHT junctions between ENDOTHELIAL cells and [ENDOTHELIAL CELL LAMINA] to "gatekeep" blood coming from from CAPILLARIES(which never make direct contact with brain tissue)

B: Pleuripotent cell that gives rise to other blood vessels and regulates endothelial cells. Located [under basal lamina] but [ON TOP OF ENDOTHELIUM]

59

The Brain is ___% of Body weight BUT uses ___% Oxygen!

A: metabolic: INC neuronal activity--->________ released --->[______ _______ _______ activation]--->________ ________released at feet ---> applied to vessels to ________ ________ in that area

B: How is Control of Blood Flow AUTOregulated?

C: How is Control of Blood Flow regulated neuronally?

D: What is the normal Flow of Blood and what happens when that number is low? [2]

Brain is 2% Body Weight BUT uses 25% Oxygen!

-Control of Blood Flow:

A: metabolic: INC neuronal activity--->Glutamate released --->[astrocyte feet receptor activation]--->VasoDIOLATES factors released at feet ---> applied to vessels to DILATE VESSELS IN THAT AREA

B: AUTOREGULATION: Arterial & Smooth muscle cell mediated

C: neuronally: autonomic fibers innervate Cerebral vessels

D: Normally= [55 ml Blood/100 g in 1 minute]

20 ml = neurons stop electrically firing

10 ml = NECROSIS OF BRAIN!

60

Valveless Cerebral Veins ---(drain into)--->___________-----(drain into)-----> _____ ______ ______ + [Basilar Venous Plexus]

B: The [Basilar Venous Plexus] drains mostly ____ _____ and communicates with +_____________

C: Where does the [Cerebellum and Brainstem] draiiin their veiiiinnns? 

Valveless Cerebral Veins---(drain into)--->[DURA VENOUS SINUSES]----(drain into)----> [INTERNAL JUGULAR VEIN] + [Basilar Venous Plexus]

B: [Basilar Venous Plexus] mostly drains BASE OF BRAIN and communicates with [SPINAL CORD EPIDURAL VENOUS PLEXUS]

C: [Cerebellum and BrainSTEM] drain their veins into the [GREAT VEIN OF GALEN]! (along w/Deep Veins)