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Flashcards in Neuropharmacology Deck (39):
1

Drugs that cause aplastic anemia?

Carbamazepine

2

Phenytoin MOA? 1st Line?

MOA: Increased Na+ channel inactivation

1st Line: Tonic-Clonic Seizures and Prophylaxis of Status Epilepticus

3

Phenytoin AE?

1. Induction of cytochrome p450

2. Zero Order Elimination (toxic builds up faster)

3. Gingival hyperplasia and Hirsutism

4

What other drugs have zero order elimination?

PEA
Phenytoin
Ethanol
Aspirin

5

Carbamazepine MOA? 1st Line?

MOA: Increased Na+ channel inactivation

1st Line: Trigeminal Neuralgia; Simple, Complex and Tonic-Clonic Seizures

6

Carbamazepine AE?

1. Induction of cytochrome p450
2. SIADH=>Edema (Check ADH)
3. Bone Marrow Suppression (Blood count)
4. Check LFTs

7

Valproic Acid MOA? 1st Line?

MOA: Increased Na+ channel inactivation and Increases GABA by inhibiting GABA transaminase

1st Line: Tonic-Clonic Seizures and Bipolar Disorder
Can be used for both tonic clonic+absence

8

Valproic Acid AE?

PHIG
1. Hepatotoxicity (Measure LFTs)
2. Inhibition of cytochrome p450
3. Contraindicated in Pregnancy
4. GI distress

9

EthoSUXimide MOA? 1st Line?

MOA: Blocks Thalamic T-type Ca2+ channels
1st Line: Absence Seizures

10

Phenobarbital MOA? 1st Line?

MOA: facilitate GABAa action by increasing DURATION of Cl- channel opening

1st line: in neonates

11

Barbiturates consist of?

Phenobarbital, pentobarbital, thiopental, secobarbital

12

Barbiturates MOA, AE?

MOA: facilitate GABAa action by increasing DURATION of Cl- channel opening

AE: Contraindicated in porphyria (Induction of cytochrome p450), Everything Depression, Inhibits Complex 1 of ETC=>Decreased ATP

Depresses Porphyria
Depresses everything
Depresess Complex 1 of ETC

13

Barbiturate withdrawal leads to?

Life threatening Seizures

14

Benzodiazepines end in?

-zepam or -zolam

15

Benzodiazepines MOA, 1st Line, AE?

MOA: facilitate GABAa action by increasing FREQUENCY of Cl- channel opening

1st Line: Acute Status Epilepticus

AE: Depression much like Barbs

16

Short Acting Benzos?

ATOM
Alprazolam, Triazolam, Oxazepam, and Midazolam

17

Increase in Frequency means?

Increased potency

18

Antidote to Benzo?

Flumazenil

19

Felbamate MOA?

MOA: NMDA receptor antagonist

20

Lamotrigine MOA?

MOA: Blocks voltage gated Na+ channels

21

Zolpidem, Zaleplon and esZopicolne MOA? Use?

MOA: BZ1 subtype in GABA=> Puts you to ZZZ
Use: Insomnia

22

Halothane vs Nitrous Oxide, which do you need less of?

Halothane=>needs less, less MAC needed=>Increased potency, more lipid soluble and higher Blood gas and slow

23

Inhaled anesthetics are?

Halothane+ -fluranes

24

AE of halothane and -Fluranes? Antidote?

1. Malignant Hyperthermia
2. Fulminant hepatitis

Antidote: Dantrolene

25

Dantrolene MOA?

MOA: Prevents release of Ca2+ from the sarcoplasmic reticulum of skeletal muscle

26

How are barbiturates used as IV anesthetics and which one is used?

Thiopental, induction
of anesthesia and short surgical procedures

27

How are Benzos used as IV anesthetics and which one is used?

Midazolam most common drug used for endoscopy

28

Ketamine (Arylcyclohexylamines) MOA? Use? AE?

MOA: Blocks NMDA receptors
Use: dissociative anesthetics=>hallucinations
AE: Cardio stimulant, Hallucinations

29

Ketamine is like?

PCP

30

Drug that looks like milk? What is unique about this drug? MOA?

Propofol
MOA: Potentiates GABAa
Unique=>antiemetic

31

Local anesthetics are divided into?

Amides and Esters

32

How do you identify amides?

They have i before caine (like sugar caine)

33

Local anesthetics MOA?

Block Na+ channels by binding to specific receptors on inner portion of channel

34

Which fibers do they block first and last?

First: Small myelinated fibers=> dull pain
Last: Large unmyelinated fibers

35

Why do the anesthetic esters have allergy?

PABA

36

Which fibers do they lose first?

SPinothalamic then DCML
Pain then Temp
(1) pain, (2) temperature, (3) touch, (4) pressure.

37

NO explain its MAC, B/G ratio and Lipid?

Low Lipid=>Decreased Blood/Gas ratio=>Rapid Induction=>More MAC needed

Increased MAC for RAPID INDUCTION

38

Thiopental rapidly redistributes or metabolizes?

redistributes

39

Where does Thiopental Redistribute?

Skeletal muscle