Disorder of speech, usually occurring secondary to stroke that causes a loss of control over the muscles of face and mouth. Pts. may drool, speak slowly, slur words, and display limited mouth and jaw movement.
A disorder of reading (AKA alexia without agraphia). Can spell and recognize words spelled to them but have great difficulty reading. Caused by damage to the connection between the visual cortex and the angular gyrus
A neurological disorder characterized by clumsy movements and poor coordination of musles.
Inability to move despite the urge and physical fitness necessary to do so. Can be very specific, ex. constructional apraxia, which only involves difficulty with drawing objects or constructing simple models.
Neurological disorder thought to be caused by
(1) brain damage due to trauma
(2) herpes encephalitis.
- in sexually inappropriate ways
- tend to put objects in mouth.
- May suffer from visual agnosia.
Factitious disorder where pts mimic behaviors they believe are characteristic of psychosis. May respond with nonsensical words when asked questions, engage in echolalia and echopraxia (rpting mvmts).
Located in the parietal lobe, just behind Wernickes area. Located on the margin of the occipital and temporal lobes.
Serves to COORDINATE
- language-related information.
it is involved in a number of processes related to language, number processing and spatial cognition, memory retrieval, attention, and theory of mind.
Causes of Gerstmann's Syndrome
Thought to be due to damage to the left parietal lobe in the area of angular gyrys
Finger agnosia, right-left confusion, acalculia or dyscalculia, and agraphia. This is different from motor agraphia (find motor probe; poor muscle tone)
Occipital Lobe Damage
Results in visual-perceptual deficits, such as devpmt of scotomas; in addition visual hallucinations or illusions, (objects abnormally sized or colored), may become unable to read (alexia) or write (agraphia)
Parietal lobe damage
Causes abnormalities in body image and spatial perception
damage to the right parietal lobe can lead to contralateral neglect, construction apraxia, and anosognosia.
Damage to the left results in Gertsmann's Syndrome.
Temporal Lobe damage
- Causes auditory disturbances including auditory hallucinations
- Problems with visual perception
- Difficulty with language comprehension (Wernicke's aphasia)
- Impaired long term memory (anterograde amnesia)
Anterior Cingulate Cortex Damage
ACC allows for communication between cortex and limbic system. Also helps focus attention on tasks. ACC damage associated with inability to detect errors, difficulty resolving contradictory stimuli, emotional instability, poor attention, control, and loss of voluntary movement and speech.
Associated with depression, anxiety, & ADHD
dACC (cognitive function)
rACC (emotional function)
Primary Motor Cortex
Executes movements. Damage here associated w/difficulties w/fine finger movement and a loss of speed and strength in the hands/limbs
Motor Association Cortex
Involved in the planning of movement. Damage here may cause difficulties coordinating the muscle movements required for speech.
Located in the left inferior frontal cortex and involved in word retrieval.
Damage may cause Broca's aphasia (an inability to retrieve words)
OFC - Associated with
- processing emotionally arousing stimuli.
Damage here associated with poor or heightened response to threatening stimuli, poor decision making and judgment, and poor risk assessment (also disinhibited bx)
Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex
- Associated with short term memory
- top-down attentional control.
Damage to this region associated with difficulties with
(2) poor recall of recently learned information
Prefrontal Cortex subdivisions
- Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex
- orbitofrontal cortex
- Broca's area
- motor association cortex
- primary motor cortex
Damage to Prefrontal Cortex
- Personality changes
- disturbances in planning
- goal-oriented behavior
Prefrontal cortex responsible for
- executive function
- attentional control
- updating working memory
Located within basal ganglia, may be involved in learning and memory and generating feelings of love; abnormalities in caudate nucleus linked to OCD
Locate in the medial brain; receives input from the thalamus, somatosensory cortex, and other cortical areas;
- helps focus ATTENTION on tasks
- relay info between limbic system and higher cortical areas, which is involved with
- emotion formation and processing
cingulate cortex is usually considered part of the limbic lobe.
A condition from premature activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadotropic axis. Leads to early sexual maturation
FSH and LH
In females, LH and FSH stimulate ovarian devpmt. In males, FSH essential for spermatogenesis and LH promotes testosterone synthesis
Regulate the gonads and the release of hormones necessary for sexual maturation; FSH and LH
Produced in stressful situations and stimulate release of hormones by the adrenal gland
Thyroid stimulating hormones that modulate metabolism in the thyroid gland
Anterior Pituitary Lobe
Controls the release of various hormones from endocrine organs
Disorders associated with the midbrain
Parkinson's - Degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra. Drug addiction - pleasurable effects of drug as well as addictive qualities are associated with functions of the VTA.