Flashcards in Stats Deck (126)

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## IV

### manipulated by researcher, presumed to be the agent of change

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## DV

### measured by researcher to determine if IV has an effect

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## Quasi-independent variable

### IV in quasi-experiemtne (using existing groups rather than random assignment in determining condition)

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## Variance

### Sum of squared deviations from the mean, divided by N-1. Less susceptible to extreme values/outliers

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## Standard deviation

### Square root of the variance

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## r-squared (single predictor), R-squared (multiple predictors)

### Proportion of variation accounted for in one variable through linear relationship with another (or others). Not good for sample-to-sample comparisons. Reflects a reduction in error.

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## Eta-squared

### Proportion of variance accounted for in one variable thru relationship (not necessarily linear) with another (or others)

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## Squared factor loading

### Proportion of variance accounted for in one variable by a factor

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## Beta weight

### Standard regression coefficient

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## Coeffeicient of Nondetermination

### One minus r-squared; proportion of variation in the dependent variable not associated with independent variables

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## Chi-square: Cramer's phi

### Strength of relationship between two variables in a contingency table

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## t-test: Cohen's d

### Difference between two group means in terms of a standard deviation (control group or pooled)

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## ANOVA: eta-squared, omega-squared

### Proportion of variation in the DV accounted for by the IV

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## Correlation: r-squared

### Proportion of variation in one variable accounted for by the linear relationship with another

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## p value

### The level of significance, or the probability that the null hypothesis is false

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## Kappa Coefficient

### Used to evaluate inter-rater reliability

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## Coefficient Alpha

### Stats used to assess the internal consistency reliability

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## Pearson's r

### A correlation stat used primarily for two sets of data that are of the ratio or interval scale; it is the most commonly used correlational technique

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## Pooled variance

### The weighted average of two sample variances. Provides better estimate of population variance than either sample alone.

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## Mean Squared Within (MSW)

### A measure of error variation used in ANOVA

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## Moderator variable

### A variable that affects the magnitude of direction of the relationship between the independent variable and the dependent variable

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## Mediating variable

### A variable explaining the process by which the IV affects the DV (therapy affects depression by creating a more positive self-image, which then lessens depression)

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## Outcome variable

### The dependent variable for a prediction in an experiment; it should be clinically relevant

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## Suppressor variable

### Lowers or covers the relationship between variables

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## Criterion contamination

### Occurs when the operational or actual criterion includes variance that is unrelated to the ultimate criterion.

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## Chi-Square test

### Examines frequency distribution of categorical variables such as political party affiliation or eye color. Non-parametirc, does not require normality.

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## Goodness-of-fit

### One-way Chi-Square test for examining frequency distribution of one IV. May use expected frequencies (like expected percentage)

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## Test for independence

### Two-way Chi-Square test for examining contingency table for 2 variables to determine wether they are independent (un-related). Requires counts, not percentages and requires a count of at least 5.

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## T-test

### An inferential statistical procedure used to test whether the means of two groups are equal to each other.

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