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Flashcards in Social Psych Deck (154)
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1

Attenuation

Stimuli not attended to are processed too weakly to be brought to conscious awareness

2

Attentional bias

Because not all information can be attended to, our mind chooses which stimuli is most important

3

What was the first comprehensive theory of attention?

Broadbent's Filter Theory of Attention. The filter selects the incoming messages that will be further processed based on the physical properties of the message

4

Dichotic listening

A task in which a person simultaneously hears two different auditory stimuli,with one stimulus presented to each ear

5

What experiment determined that "misery loves miserable company?"

Schachter's anxiety experiment

6

Factors that foster group cohesion

Presence of an outside threat; distinction between in-group and out-group; social in physical environment that is conducive to people frequently meeting and interacting with each other, similarity of members and interests or values; democratic leader who values good group feelings and group members' input in decision-making

7

Groupthink

Tendency of a cohesive group to seek unanimity and suspend critical evaluation in making decsions

8

Role consensus

The degree to which the group agrees on the role of each member

9

Group polarization

The tendency of people in groups to hold extreme views and a group-produced enhancement of member's preexisting tendencies or a strengthening of the average inclination of group members.

10

Deindividuation

Loss of self-awareness and evaluation apprehension, and weakened restraints against forms of prohibited behaviors

11

Group contagion

Transmission of emotion through a crowd or group

12

What are the three classifications for group tasks?

Combined contributions (additive or compensatory); comparing tasks based on best and worst members (disjunctive and conjunctive); and task classification (intellective, criterion, judgmental, and maximizing)

13

What is an additive task?

The inputs of each of the group members are added together to create the group performance, and the expected performance of the group is the sum of the group members' individual input

14

What is a compensatory task?

The group input is combined, so that the performance of the individuals is averaged rather than added.

15

Disjunctive task

When the group's performance is determined by the best group member

16

Conjunctive task

When the groups' performance is determined by the ability of the poorest performing group member

17

Intellective task

Involves the ability of the group to make a decision or a judgment

18

Criterion task

The group can see that there is a clearly correct answer to the problem that is being posed.

19

Judgmental task

There is no clearly correct answer to the problem that is posed

20

Maximizing task

Involves performance that is measured by how rapidly the group works, or how much of a product they are able to make

21

Two defining task types

Divisible (work can be divided among individuals) and unitary (work cannot be divided)

22

Aggregate

People who are unaware of one another and do not interact with one another

23

Social inhibition

The tendency for people to do worse on complex tasks when observed by others

24

Diffusion of responsibility

The tendency for people to assume that someone else will respond to a situation and take effect

25

Schachter's Two-Factor Theory of Emotion

Emotional reactions are based upon cognitive interpretations of arousal

26

Self-Verification Theory

We prefer to be right rather than happy

27

Consistency Paradox

The idea that variability in behavior from one situation to another is far greater than had been recognized by many early theorists

28

Cooperative Learning

The jigsaw technique. Children of defferent races brought together in cooperative groups. Each assigned a different portion of the lesson to learn and teach others. Promotes group learning and race relations.

29

Low vs. High achieving in cooperative learning situations

Low-achieving students derive maximum benefit; high-achieving students resist technique, complaining that the methods are not sufficiently challenging.

30

Muzafer Sheri

Founder of modern social psychology. Developed multiple techniques for understanding social processes, particularly social norms and social conflict. Autokinetic Effect experiment, and Robber's Cave. Realistic Conflict Theory (conflict over limited resources).