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Flashcards in CBT Deck (118)
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1

Shaping

Using selective reinforcement (approximations) to modify a general response to a specific response; it is building a behavior by dividing it into small increments or steps and then teaching one step at a time until the desired behavior is achieved; steps become a series of intermediate goals. AKA Reinforcing Successive Approximations

2

Thinning

A procedure used with intermittent schedules of reinforcement; in thinning, reinforcement frequency is on a decreasing schedule

3

Response cost

A procedure in Operant Conditioning in which certain responses result in loss of a valued commodity; the intent of such procedures is to produce punishment

4

Response generalization

In conditioning, the phenomenon in which reinforcement of some forms of behavior results in an increased probability not only of these forms but also of similar and non-reinforced forms

5

Induction

In conditioning, the phenomenon in which reinforcement of some forms of behavior result in an increased probability not only of these forms, but also of similar and non-reinforced forms. AKA Response Generalization

6

Extinction

When the rate of a previous behavior decreases following the discontinuation of reinforcement

7

Spontaneous recovery

When a decrease in behavior (extinction) is not permanent, so the behavior reemerges over time

8

Extinction bursts

Occasional bursts of behavior during the extinction process, even though the overall frequency is reducing

9

Cue Deflation

When a compound stimulus controls behavior, extinction to one element of the compound can increase responding to the other element through a process called cue deflation

10

Habituation

A decrease in responsiveness to a particular stimulus resulting from repeated exposure to that stimulus

11

Selective attention

The ability to attend to one stimulus among a mass of competing stimuli

12

Inhibition

The blocking or prevention of a person's ability to remember old information or learn new information

13

Secondary Reinforcement

An Operant Conditioning term that refers to reinforcement by means of a stimulus that has acquired reinforcing qualities by having been associated with a reinforcer

14

Pseudoconditioning

A Classical Conditioning term for elicitation of a response by a previously neutral stimulus when it is presented following a series of occurrences of a conditioned stimulus (e.g., after flinching each time an electric shock is administered, a person is likely to flinch if a loud tone is then presented)

15

Who demonstrated the concept of taste aversion?

John Garcia in rats. Gave them saccharin-flavored water followed by apomorphine; which causes nausea; other rats received saline after the saccharine flavored water. Rats that had nausea would drink very little water while the other rats would drink a lot.

16

Tolman

Best known for his work on rats and the concept of cognitive maps; Considred one of the pioneers of Cognitive Psychology

17

Kohler

Known for insight learning and his work with bonobos (or rhesus monkeys)

18

Kandel

Studied neural mechanisms underlying associative and nonassociative learning in sea slugs

19

Covert sensitization

A form of aversive conditioning in which the frequency of undesirable behavior is lessened by mentally associating it with unpleasant mental images

20

Rescorla-Wagner Model

A mathematical account of how associative strength grows during Pavlonian Conditioning. Looks at associative strength (level of knowledge about the CS-US relationship), the conditioning trial number, the change (a measure of learning), and the maximum amount of conditioning in a situation. This reflects the salience of the CS and the US.

21

The Rescoral-Wagner Model explains why:

typical learning curves for Pavlonian conditioning are gradual, negatively decelerating; conditioning is faster with stimuli that are more salient (i.e. overshadowing); when two or more stimuli predict a US, conditioning occurs to the one with the strongest predictive validity; and if the US is already predicted by one CS, conditioning will not occur to another CS that provides redundant information (i.e. blocking).

22

Sensitization

A process in which a stimulus or a context causes an individual to subsequently display a stronger response to another stimulus than would otherwise be expected

23

Perceptual Masking

A phenomenon that occurs when one stimulus (the masking stimulus) prevents the perception of a second stimulus (the target stimulus) because they occur close together in time. The individual only perceives the masking stimulus.

24

Operant Extinction

The procedure of withholding reinforcement for a previously-reinforced voluntary behavior; there is a gradual reduction in the behavior until it ceases completely

25

Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory

Certain factors (hygiene and motivation) in the workplace cause job satisfaction, while others lead to dissatisfaction

26

Schacter's Two-Factor Theory

A theory of avoidance learning, holding that avoidance behaviors is the result of both classical conditioning and negative reinforcement; emotions are a direct result of an analysis of the surroundings

27

Temporal Learning

A Classical Conditioning concept with no counterpart in Operant Conditioning. The passage of time serves as a CS. The body's natural circadian rhythms are thought to play a role in temporal conditioning.

28

Trace Conditioning

A form of conditioning involving the brief presentation of a conditioned stimulus, followed by a period of time during which no stimulus is presented, and then the presentation of an unconditioned stimulus, leading eventually to a conditioned response based on the memory (trace) of a previous stimulus

29

Delay conditioning

A form of classical conditioning in which the conditioned stimulus precedes the unconditioned stimulus by a significant time period and the individual learns to withhold its conditioned response

30

Temporal Delay

A technical term for a pause