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Flashcards in Non-odontogenic tumors Deck (44)
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1

What is the typical population of a dog with oral melanoma?

Males

Mean age of 10.5–12 years. (11yo)

Cocker spaniels, Labrador and Golden retrievers or

dog with heavily pigmented oral mucosa.

2

According to the TNM clinical staging, what are the M stages?

M0 = no evidence of distant mets M1 = distant mets present. You've just won stage 4!

3

According to the TNM clinical staging, what are the ''T'' stages?

Tis = tumor in situ T1 = tumor < 2cm at max diameter T1a = without bone involvement T1b = with bone involvement T2 = 2 to 4 cm, add substage a and b T3 = more than 4cm, add a and b. This makes you a stage 3 at minimum.

4

According to the TNM clinical staging, what are the N stages?

N0 = regional LN non palpable (mandibular, retropharyngeal, parotid) N1 = movable ipsilateral LN N1a = no evidence of mets N1b = evidence of mets N2 = movable contralateral LN, add substages a and b N2b (You've just upgraded to stage 4!) N3 = fixed LN (Also makes you stage 4)

5

According to the TNM clinical staging, what does stage 1 mean?

Tumor less than 2cm, no mets in the LN.

6

According to the TNM clinical staging, what makes a patient stage 3?

Tumor more than 4cm or met to the ipsilateral LN

7

According to the TNM clinical staging, what automatically makes a patient a stage 4?

Distant metastasis, contralateral LN met or fixed LN

8

from what location in the mouth do melanoma typically arise from?

tongue, gingiva, and mucosa

9

what are the differential diagnoses for oral melanoma?

melanocytoma

round cell tumors (lymphoma, mast cell tumor, histiocytoma, plasma cell tumor)

anaplastic sarcoma/carcinoma

osteogenic tumor

10

where do melanomas arise from?

at the epithelial/subepithelial interface of the mucosa (where melanocytes generally reside in normal tissue).

11

what are chow-chows and shar peis at risk for?

melanoma of the tongue

12

which location of melanoma has a better prognosis?

lip

13

what is the potential for metastasis for oral melanomas and where do they go?

potential is high (53-74%)

regional lymph nodes (cervical/ mandibular)

lungs

distant sites like the liver or central nervous system.

14

what treatment is indicated for oral melanoma?

surgery with 2cm margins

+-vaccine

15

Associate these tumors with their mean age at presentation in dogs:

Melanoma

SCC

Fibrosarc

Osteosarc

7-9yo, 8-9, 9-10, 10-12

Fibrosarc 7-9yo

SCC 8-9 yo

Osteosarc 9-10yo

Melanoma 10-12yo

16

which tumor may present with history of non-healing extraction site?

OSCC

17

what tumor may resemble OSCC on histo?

CAA

18

what is the difference on histo between OSCC and CAA?

In CAA, neoplastic epithelial cells generally remain well-differentiated, tend to form architectural structures consistent with odontogenic epithelium, and may exhibit the cardinal histologic features of odontogenic epithelium.

19

what tissue does OSCC originate from?

Malignant tumor of keratinocytes derived from the stratified squamous epithelium of the oral mucosa.

20

what is the metastatic rate for OSCC?

low

11-12%

21

what is the recommended teatment for OSCC?

surgical resection with 1cm margins

22

what is the most common tumor in the tongue and what is it's prevalence?

SCC

36,8% - 54% of lingual tumors

23

which portions of the tongues do melanomas and scc typically involve?

melanoma: caudal 1/3

SCC: rostral 2/3

24

name some potentiel causes for OSCC

chronic exposure to air pollution, tobacco smoke, papillomavirus infections, flea collars, diet, prior radiation exposure, and chronic inflammation

 

25

how does the prognosis differ between oral SCC in dogs, lingual SCC, tonsillar SCC and papillary SCC?

OSCC: survival 26 months, mets is 11-12%

lingual: higher (14-37,5%) metastatic potential, survival is shorter (1 month without treatment, up to 39)

tonsillar: high met rate (61.1 – 97%), median survival 110-270 days

Papillary: no metastatic potential, surgery may be curative

26

what are treatment options for feline oral SCC and what are the associated survival times?

Surgery: Median survival times of 3–14 months with longer survival times for tumors located in the mandible and in combination with radiation therapy.

Palliative care: median survival 44 days, apparent longer survival in cats that received NSAIDs.

 

27

describe the typical patient that has a fibrosarcoma

median age 8 years, but any age is possible

large breed dog (Golden retriever, Labrador or German shepherd)

tumor just palatal to the maxillary fourth premolar

 

28

which common oral tumor is typically fixed and relatively unmovable?

fibrosarc

 

29

how often do fibrosarcomas occur in the mouth?

17,7% of oral tumours

30

what is a typical characteristic of fibrosarcoma on histo?

oral FSA are arranged as tight, parallel bundles of mesenchymal cells oriented orthogonally to adjacent bundles of mesenchymal cells. This tendency to form orthogonal bundles is almost pathognomonic for FSA.