which type of dog typically has calcinosis circumscripta?
less than 4yo large breed German shepherd
which stain can be useful on cytological smears to identify calcinosis circumscripta?
von Kossa or Alizarin
does calcinosis circumscripta come back or appear in new places?
what is in a calcinosis circumscripta lesion?
- encapsulated deposit of minral salts (hydroxyapatite or amorphous calcium phosphate) most often on tongue (1st site - pelvic limb)
what are the causes for drug-induced gingival enlargement?
- phenytoin derivatives - calcium channel blockers - cyclosporine - oral hygiene + genetic susceptibility
describe the histopath findings of drug-induced gingival enlargement (verstraete)
- excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins, such as collagen, or amorphous ground substance. An inflammatory infiltrate dominated by plasmacytes and thickened keratinized epithelium is typically present.
what is fibrous focal hyperplasia?
sessile pink smooth mass due to reactive, subepithelial fibrosis as a result of chronic trauma (mostly on rostral maxilla)
what are the other names for focal fibrous hyperplasia?
fibrous or fibromatous epulis
how common (or rare) is fibrous focal hyperplasia in dogs?
very common 16 to 57% of oral lesions or 43,5% of epulis-like lesions
what is the treatment for focal fibrous hyperplasia?
surgical excision + removal of the cause
what does focal fibrous hyperplasia look like on histo?
bell: dense fibrous connective tissue with little epithelial hyperplasia or inflammation wiggs: exuberant stromal collagen, +- osseous metaplasia, mucosal epithelium that is hyperplastic or hyperkeratotic verstraete: dense fibrous connective tissue covered by stratified squamous epithelium
according to verstraete, what breeds are predisposed to gingival hyperplasia?
boxer collie great dane dalmatian doberman
what other entities are often present within gingival enlargement lesions in boxer dogs?
- fibromatous epulis of periodontal ligament origin (FEPLO)
- peripheral odontogenic fibroma (POF)
what are the characteristics (including histo) of gingival hyperplasia according to bell?
- smooth to irregular nodular proliferation of the gingiva, usually affecting the free gingiva that cuffs the base of the tooth. - hyperplasia of both the mucosal epithelium and the subepithelial lamina propria. - The fibrous subepithelium is reminiscent of histologically normal tissue, just too much of it
what is the lesion in cats caused by max PM4 on mand M1?
pyogenic or traumatic granuloma
N.B.: Can also be found in other locations: gingiva, mucosa, lips, tongue
What is the histo of pyogenic granuloma?
Why is it called pyogenic?
- mass effect with granulation tissue, ulceration, fibrin, edema, epithial hyperplasia, lymphoplasmocytic inflammation, surface bacterial colonization from oral cavity.
- Pyogenic is a misnomer since not caused by bacteria infection; name originates from surface appearance of inflammed lesion with fibrinous membrane that resemble pustular discharge.
(Ref. Clinicopathologic charcterization of oral pyogenic granuloma in 8 cats. JOVD 2014)
What is the treatment of choice for pyogenic granuloma?
- excision of lesion and odontoplastie of Mx PM4 (recurrence 25%) or extraction of MxPM4 and MxM1 (recurrence 10%).
- biopsy of lesion
what is the real name of chewing lesions?
traumatic buccal (or sublingual) mucosal hyperplasia (verstraete)
when is it advisable to treat chewing lesions?
only if they are in the occlusal path and keep being traumatized
why are chewing lesions referred to as granulomas?
because it involves exuberant granulation tissue (as opposed to granulomatous inflammation)
What is the differenc between Central Giant Cell Granuloma and Peripheral Gianl Cell Granuloma?
- 2 differents pathologies:
Central Giant Cell Granuloma: idiopahtic expansive radiolucent lesion of the jaw +/- agressive; Tx by curettage or radical sx
Peripheral Giant Cell Granuloma: frequent in cats (29% epulis); sessile or pedonculated pink-blue lesion of oral mucosl associated to trauma/maloccl.; mesenchymal cells + multinucleated giant cells among collagen matrix (not organised as true granuloma); excision + tx cause
- Central Giant Cell Granuloma: idiopahtic expansive radiolucent lesion of the jaw +/- agressive; Tx by curettage or radical sx
- Peripheral Giant Cell Granuloma: frequent in cats (29% epulis); sessile or pedonculated pink-blue lesion of oral mucosl associated to trauma/maloccl.; mesenchymal cells + multinucleated giant cells among collagen matrix (not organised as true granuloma); excision + tx cause
What is this condition?
Follicular Lymphoid hyperplasia (aggregates of lymphocytes/lymphoide tissue)
What is this lesion?
Histocytic Foam Cells Nodules
- formed of vaculated histiocytes in skeletal myocytes or collagen stroma of tongue (Dachshund)
What is Reactive Exostosis?
Proliferation of compact/cancelous alveolar bone due to repetitive trauma