Nucleotides: The Building Blocks of Nucleic Acids Flashcards Preview

GN 421 > Nucleotides: The Building Blocks of Nucleic Acids > Flashcards

Flashcards in Nucleotides: The Building Blocks of Nucleic Acids Deck (21):
1

primary structure

- sequence of amino acids in a protein

2

secondary structure

- first order folding

3

tertiary structure

- second-order folding
- 3-D structure

4

quaternary structure

- subunit interaction

5

Nucleoside

Base + Sugar

6

Nucleotide

Base + Sugar + Phosphate

7

Sugar

- Ribose (RNA)
- Deoxyribose (DNA) - no OH in 2' position

8

Purines

- Adenine
- Guanine
- two membered rings

9

Pyrimidines

- Cytosine
- Thymine - only DNA
- Uracil - only RNA
- single ring

10

prime (')

- prevent numbering confusion with the atoms in the bases.

11

bond between base and sugar

- N-glycosidic bond (N-9)
- covalently bonded to N

12

P32

- common radioactive label

13

Following the addition of nucleotides into DNA or RNA (nucleic acid)

- put P32 on the 5' alpha position on the free nucleotides

14

Following the transfer of a phosphate

- put P32 on the 5' gamma position on the ATP

15

Where are the phosphates?

May be carried in the 5' or 3' position

16

ester

- linkage between an alcohol and an organic acid

17

if the acid is phosphoric acid

the ester is phosphoester

18

phosphoric acid can form more than one ester

phosphodiester

19

Synthesis of a dinucleotide

- formation of a phosphodiester bond between 3' OH and 5' phosphate
- covalently linked
- 5'-3' synthesis in vivo
- 3' OH critical for nucleic acid synthesis
- pyrophosphate released

20

pyrophosphate

- key for pyrosequencing

21

chemical synthesis of DNA

- done in 3' to 5' direction
- primers for PCR and DNA sequencing
- need to be single-stranded with no template involved.
- synthesis controlled by identity of nucleotide provided by each round of synthesis.