Flashcards in Nutrition Module 9: Nutrition & Aging - Chronic Disease Deck (89)
How long can a 65 yo woman in the US expect to live to?
How long can a 65 yo man in the US expect to live to?
How many deaths in the US are caused by either heart disease, cancer, and stroke?
What do nutritional recommendations for elder patients depend on?
Age and stage of disease
What are the 2 factors that may cause age-typical diseases?
1. Normal wear and tear: hardening of arteries, accumulation of DNA mutations, minor loss of bone minerals
2. Accelerated damage: deposition of lipids, calcium, and proteins due to obesity, lack of folate, high rate of DNA mutations due to charbroiled meat, lack of antioxidants, lack of vitamin D or calcium or lack of exercise leading to bone loss
What are the 3 age-typical diseases?
1. Myocardial infarction
3. Bone fracture
Can nutritional changes made in the second part of life make a difference?
What are the 7 nutrient intake goals?
1. Total energy should maintain healthy weight
2. Saturated + trans fat below 10% of energy intake
3. Monounsaturated fats below 20% of energy intake
4. Fat below 35% of energy intake
5. 20-35g of fiber/day
6. Carotenoids, polyphenols, and other antioxidants
What does the amount of fiber recommended per day depend on?
Age and sex
What is primary prevention of disease? Are these only applicable to older adults?
Reduce exposure to risk factors to decrease chances of developing chronic disease
NOPE, applicable to everyone
What is secondary prevention of disease?
Detect early and treat before symptoms develop and cause damage OR prevent event recurrence
What is tertiary prevention of disease?
Slow the progress of a clinically overt disease and lessen its effects by improving nutritional status
What are the 6 benefits of disease prevention for older adults?
1. Maintenance of health/vitality
2. Restoration of function when possible
3. Repleneshing nutrient stores/improving nutrient status
4. Correction of nutritional deficiencies
5. Delay/minimization of disease side effects
6. More successful chronic disease rehab
Are the benefits of disease prevention for older adults the same as for younger adults?
What are 4 examples of primary disease prevention?
1. Consume low saturated fat and transfat
2. Consume diet rich in whole grains, fruits, and veggies
3. Consume adequate calcium and vitamin D
4. Achieve and maintain appropriate body weight
What are 3 examples of secondary disease prevention?
1. Diet, weight control/physical activity, and medication
2. Increase dietary calcium, potassium, and magnesium for BP
3. Reduce serum lipids by reducing saturated fat and transfat intake
What are 3 examples of tertiary disease prevention?
1. Nutritional support during cancer therapy
2.Vit D, vitamin K, and calcium supplementationas part of a comprehensive osteoporosis treatment program
3. High intake of omega-3 FAs to decrease chronic arthritis inflammation
What is the practical nutritional advice to give to patients? 5 of them
1. Maintain regular, age appropriate exercise
2. Eat 4-5 cups fruit and veggies per day
3. Eat processed food and meals less often
4. Choose whole grain
5. Use RDAlevel supplement
Describe the 4 steps of athreosclerosis.
1. Lumen of arteries is smooth = healthy
2. Reversible fatty streaks or tears appear
3. Bulging intima = arteries harden and narrow due to cholesterol and calcium deposits
4. Blood clots block small arteries; myocardial infarction or stroke may occur = thrombus
What disease are more than 60% of older people die of?
What stage of atherosclerosis are most 65 yo at?
How can you prevent atherosclerosis to go from stage 2 to 3?
1. Normal body weight
2. Low saturated fat intake
3. Vitamin E, C, and K, and folate rich foods
How can you prevent atherosclerosis to go from stage 3 to 4?
Foods rich in omega3 fatty acids and salicylates reduce
What are the 4 mechanisms resulting in the narrowing and occlusion of arteries?
2. Lipid infiltration
What are the 2 ways that lipids infiltrate arteries?
1. It accumulates as LDL is altered by oxidative damage
2. Foam cells rupture in the intima
What is the arterial intima?
Layer of artery closest to the lumen
What are foam cells?
Cholesterol filled macrophages
How to avoid lipid infiltration of arteries?
Reduce amount of LDLs circulating:
1. Low fat
5. Normal body weight
How does inflammation/proliferation of arteries occur?
Intimal deposits of cholesterol and broken up foam cells attract
macrophages and induce proliferation of smooth muscle cells and