Nutrition Module 8: Micronutrients Review Flashcards Preview

SMP - MNE Exam 2 > Nutrition Module 8: Micronutrients Review > Flashcards

Flashcards in Nutrition Module 8: Micronutrients Review Deck (194)
Loading flashcards...
1

What are the 4 lipid soluble vitamins?

ADEK

2

What is needed to digest lipid soluble vitamins?

Micelles

3

Out of the 4 lipid soluble vitamins, which one is poorly stored in the body?

Vitamin K: only last a few days

4

What can limit the absorption of lipid soluble vitamins?

Meal w/o fat

5

Vitamin A: sources? 6

1. Sweet potatoes
2. Carrots
3. Green leafy veggies
4. Eggs
5. cheese
6. Milk

6

Vitamin A: functions? 3

1. Vision
2. Immune function
3. Growth

7

Vitamin A: deficiency? Common for who? 7

1. Visual impairment and other occular symptoms
3. Loss of appetite
4. Susceptibility to infections
5. Chronic skin xerosis
6. Follicular hyperkeratosis with no bleeding
9. Bitot's spots
10. Night blindness

Extremely common in children in underdeveloped countries

8

Vitamin A: toxicity? 4 + 1

RETINOL ONLY

1. Liver and bone damage
2. Vomiting
3. Dry mucous membranes
4. Headaches

+ Mutagenic potential of retinol during early pregnancy

9

Vitamin D: sources? 3

1. Fortified milk/formula
2. Fish
3. Eggs

*Produced in sun-exposed skin

10

Vitamin D: functions? 4

1. Growth regulation
2. Immune function
3. Calcium/Phosphorus absorption
4. Bone health

11

Vitamin D: deficiency? Common for who? 11

1. Rickets,
2. Osteomalacia (softening of the bones)
3. Osteoporosis
4. Lax muscles
5. Risk of falls
6. Diminished calcium absorption and retention
7. Cancer
8. Bowed legs
9. Epiphyseal enlargement of the wrists
10. Craniotabes
11. Thorax deformities

12

Vitamin D: toxicity? 2

1. Brain damage in young infants
2. Calcification of arteries and other soft tissues

13

Vitamin E: sources? 3

1. Vegetable oils
2. Nuts and seeds
3. Margarine



14

What is the natural form of Vitamin E? Bioavailability?

RRR-a-tocopherol: highly available

15

What does synthetic Vitamin E contain? Which ones ate bioavailable?

Equal amounts of 8 stereoisomers; only half (the 2-S forms) are highly bioavailable

16

Vitamin E: functions? 1

1. Antioxidant in lipid-rich components

17

Vitamin E: deficiency? 2

1. Peripheral neuropathy
2. Hemolysis

18

Vitamin E: toxicity? 2

1. Bleeding
2. Hemorrhagic stroke

19

Vitamin K: sources? 4

1. Cooked greens
2. Green vegetables
3. Canola and soybean oil
4. Intestinal bacteria

20

Vitamin K: functions? 2

1. Blood coagulation
2. Protein synthesis involved in mineralization (eg: involved in calcification inhibition)

21

Vitamin K: deficiency? 2

1. Prolonged bleeding time/episodes
2. Purpura

22

Vitamin K: toxicity? 1

1. Interferes with anticoagulant meds

23

What are fortified foods?

Foods with added nutrients

24

Are water soluble vitamins stored extensively?

NOPE except for B12

25

After how long can you tell you have a water soluble vitamin deficiency?

Few weeks

26

Vitamin C: sources? 2

1. Fruits
2. Veggies

27

Vitamin C: functions? 5

1. AA metabolism
2. Bone/Teeth formation
3. Collagen formation through proline and lysine hydroxylation
4. Antioxidant for cell membranes
5. Vitamin E regeneration

28

Vitamin C: deficiency? 11

SCURVY:
1. Poor wound healing
2. Bleeding of gums
3. Perifollicular petechiae (broken capillaries)
4. Cork-screw body hair
5. Fatigue
6. Pain
7. Death
8. Weakness, joint pain
9. Subperiosteal bleeding
10. Follicular hyperkeratosis with petechiae
11. Splinter hemorrhages (nail bed)

29

Vitamin C: toxicity? 3

1. Osmotic diarrhea
2. Gastrointestinal disease
3. Kidney stones (oxalate)

30

What are the 9 non-specific symptoms of folate deficiency?

1. Loss of appetite
2. Irritability*
3. Hostility
4. Diarrhea*
5. Paranoia
6. Forgetfulness
7. Depression*
8. Macrocytic anemia*
9. Increased homocysteine blood concentration