Flashcards in Lecture 28: Diabetes Deck (61)
How many grams of FFAs in the body?
How many grams of glucose in the body? How much is circulating?
20 grams circulating = 80 kcal
What % of the body's total energy requirement does the brain consume? How many grams a day is that in the resting state?
25% = 120 g/day
What is the needed blood glucose level for the brain to maintain its normal function?
What is the blood glucose limit for danger for the brain?
What 3 types of cells are insensitive to insulin?
3. Renal medulla
Why do patients with sepsis often exhibit hypoglycemia?
Increase in WBCs which can only use glucose for energy
What is the renal medulla?
A deep part of the kidney which is not exposed to a lot of O2 so cannot oxidize FAs so only uses anaerobic glucose metabolism
Why is lactic acidosis often seen in extremely ill patients?
Because they rely on anaerobic glycolysis to get energy fast and produces a ton of lactate
What 4 types of cells are sensitive to insulin?
Grams of glycogen stored in muscleS?
Grams of glycogen stored in liver?
Grams of fat stores?
Grams of protein stores?
For how long after eating is exogenous glucose the main source of fuel?
For how long after eating is glycogen the main source of fuel?
For how long after eating is gluconeogenesis the main source of fuel?
16 hrs-40 days
What does the drop in gluconeogenesis after day 2 of fasting due to?
Ketogenesis helping out
1 in 3
How many people in the US have DM?
How many people in the US have pre-diabetes?
Range of normal FBG?
Range of impaired FBG?
Range of diabetes FBG?
How is DM diagnosed?
1 of the following:
1. Random plasma glucose > 200 mg/dL* + DM symptoms
2. FPG > 126 mg/dL*
3. PG > 200 mg/dL 2 hrs after 75g glucose load*
4. Hb A1C > 6.5%
* need to be repeated the next day
By what age have we produced all of the beta cells for our lifetime?
What is putative trigger?
The autoimmune reaction that causes B-cell injury in T1DM
What % of beta cells are left when T1DM is diagnosed?
Usually about 10%
What could we do if we were able to diagnosis T1DM earlier?
Administer immunosuppressive drugs to stop disease progression