Flashcards in Nutrition Module 7: Obesity - Basic and Clinical Deck (121)
What % of adults are overweight?
What % of adults are obese?
What % of children are obese?
By how much has obesity prevalence increased since 1960?
How has the obesity of kids in difference age groups increased?
- 2-11 yo: 5 to almost 20%
- 12-19: 5 to 12%
How many obese adults worldwide?
Is the rapid increase in obesity only seen in developed countries?
NOPE but rate of increase is faster
What is causing the global obesity epidemic?
1. Rising incomes
3. Globalization of food supply
4. Decreased physical activity because of technology
BMI for overweight?
25 or above
BMI for obese?
30 or above
How is obesity defined for kids?
BMI for age above 95th percentile
What are the 8 health risks of obesity?
• CV disease
• Type 2 DM
• Cancer (breast, endometrium, prostate, and colon)
• Gallstone disease
• Hyperuricemia (gout)
• Joint degeneration
• Mental health problems
What is central obesity?
Excess fat in abdomen and upper body (apple shape): abdomen, back, arms, and chest
What can increase the health risks of obesity? Why?
Central obesity because:
1. Impaired lipoprotein metabolism
2. Impaired glucose handling
3. Higher CVD risks
4. Higher DM risks
5. Higher cancer risks
What kind of weight loss can reduce the health risks of obesity?
What are the 10 leading causes of death in the US from most prevalent to least? Note those that obesity (*) and nutrition (#) contribute to.
1. Heart disease*#
2. Malignant neoplasms*#
3. Chronic lower respiratory diseases
4. Cerebrovascular diseases*#
8. Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome, and nephrosis#
9. Pneumonia and the flu
What determines body fat distribution?
How can we determine body fatness in patients?
1. Underwater weighing = hydrodensitometry
2. Imaging techniques: CT scan, MRI, DEXA
3. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (using differences in electroconductivity)
4. Air-displacement plethysmography
5. Doubly-labeled water method (radioactive water is ingested)
Which are more dangerous: intra-abdominal fats or subcutaneous fats?
What are the 6 cancers that obese people are more at risk for?
1. Breast (postmenaopausal)
What are indirect measures of body fat?
3. Waist circumference or waist-to-hip ratio
4. Skinfold thickness measurements
Does W-T-H ratio apply equally to all pops?
What are the units of BMI?
In what 5 situations is BMI not appropriate to use?
2. Competitive athletes and body builders
3. Children under 2 yo
4. Old people who are frail and sedentary
5. Patients with conditions precluding accurate height measurement (kyphosis, scoliosis)
What is waist circumference an indicator of?
What waist circumference suggests central obesity in males and females?
Males: 40 inches or above
Females: 35 inches or above
How to measure waist circumference?
1. Locate uppermost border of iliac crest and draw a horizontal line
2. Plane of the tape should be parallel to the floor and snug but should not compress the skin
3. Measurement is made during normal minimal respiration
What is another way of saying central obesity?
People with mainly intra-abdominal fat
Do humans have a limited capacity to store fat?