Flashcards in Nutrition Module 10: CVD - HT and Other Risk Factors Deck (71)
What does BP refer to? What are the 2 factors that contribute to it?
Mean arterial pressure:
1. Cardiac output
2. Systemic vascular resistance
Common presentation of HT?
Normal cardiac output
with systemic vascular resistance
What 3 factors can affect systemic vascular resistance? Does each increase or decrease it?
1. Norepi (as an NT and circulating hormone): INCREASE
2. NO: DECREASE
3. Elasticity loss with aging: INCREASE
What are the 8 risk factors of HT?
3. Age above 65
4. Low SES
5. Sedentary lifestyle
6. Ethnicity = AA or hispanic
7. Alcohol abuse
8. Family history
What % of americans have elevated BP or are taking meds for it?
How does BP increase the risk for CVD?
CVD risk increases doubles for each 20/10 increment
How can diet modifications lower BP?
By more than 20/10 mmHg
By how much is the risk of stroke increased for people with untreated HT?
What are the 5 criteria to make a metabolic syndrome diagnosis? How many of these need to be met?
3 out of the 5:
1. Elevated waist circumference
2. High TAGs
3. Low HDLs
4. High BP
5. High FBG
What is another name for metabolic syndrome? What can this other name also refer to though?
Can refer to a problem with heart rate regulation
What diseases are metabolic syndrome closely associated with?
T2DM and CVD
What are the 3 underlying contributing factors of metabolic syndrome?
2. Insulin resistance
3. Sedentary lifestyle
What 4 minerals play an important role in HT?
What does it mean for someone to be salt-sensitive? What % of HT patients are salt-sensitive?
Their BP responds to dietary salt intake
What is the definition of HT Stages 1 and 2? Note?
STAGE 1: 140-159/90-99
STAGE 2: 160+/100+
Note: numbers can be higher averaged over 2 or more visits
What 8 factors increase the effect of NaCl restriction on BP?
1. Older peeps
3. High BP
6. Renal abnormalities
7. Abnormal RAA system
8. Low renin or slow renin response
How much does the typical American diet provide in sodium? What is the recommended intake?
Rec: below 2,300 mg/day
Where does most of the sodium in the american diet come from? %?
Food processing: 75%
How much salt intake is consumed while cooking/eating?
How much Na does table salt contain?
By how much is BP decreased on average if following rec Na intake? How does this reduce CVD risk?
Reduces systolic BP 2-8 mmHg: 5-20% decrease in CVD risk
How does excessive salt intake impact cancer risks?
Increase stomach cancer risks
How many mmol does 2300 g of Na correspond to?
How does K+ affect BP? How? How can you fix this?
Hypokalemia = renin secretion = vasoconstriction = higher BP
Eat more potassium in fruits, veggies, fresh meats, and milk
What meds can cause K+ depletion? What other deficiency do they cause? Why?
Also thiamin deficiency because increased losses with urine
How does Ca2+ affect BP?
Deficiency causes high BP
How many servings of calcium rich food should you have each day to lower BP?
Can you just take supplements for the minerals that help with HT?
NOPE, not the same effects
How does Mg2+ affect BP?
Deficiency causes high BP