What are the general obstructive pulmonary disorders?
What are the general restrictive pulmonary disorders?
Fibrosis Chest wall defects Neuromuscular defects (diaphragm)
What are the conducting zones?
Where air passes through but does not interact with gas exchange (0-16 zones)
What are respiratory zones?
Where gas exchange takes place (17-23 zones)
Which zones do restrictive processes affect?
Which zones do obstructive processes affect?
Both Respiratory (emphysema) and Conducting (Asthma, chronic bronchitis)
Which disease is barrel-chested (increased AP diameter) associated with?
What is cor pulmonary?
Heart failure due to the lungs ex. right-sided failure/RV hypertrophy due to increased pulmonic resistance
What do interstitial disease processes affect?
Collagen, elastic fibers, mesenchymal cells, inflammatory cells
What is centriacinar?
Distal alveoli are sparred the damaged is done more central
What is panacinar?
Entire alveoli are damaged
What is the cause of chronic bronchitis?
Smoking, air pollutants
What is the cause of emphysema?
What are the signs/symptoms of chronic bronchitis?
Cough, sputum production
What are the signs/symptoms of emphysema?
Dyspnea (labored breathing)
What is distal acinar?
Occurs near the ends of the alveoli; causes blebs that can burst and give pneumothorax
What type of disease does smoking typically lead to?
Centriacinar because the pollutants can not make it far enough down to be panacinar
What typically causes panacinar disorders?
What typically causes centriacinar disorders?
How does alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency come about?
Smoking causes inflammation bringing more neutrophils to the area and release proteases and elastases
Earliest feature of chronic bronchitis?
Definition of chronic bronchitis?
Persistent cough with sputum production for at least 3 months in at least 2 consecutive years, in the absence of any other identifiable cause
What are interstitial lung disease?
Diseases in the interstitial lung space
What is idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF)?
Progressive interstitial pulmonary fibrosis and respiratory failure
What are the signs/symptoms of IPF?
What are the morphologic features of IPF?
What occurs during prolonged exercise?
Shift from carbohydrates to fat metabolism
What occurs during an increase in intensity of exercise?
There is a shift more towards carbs and away from fats