Is snoring synonymous with OSA?
No, 50% of the population snore
How does sleepiness and tiredness/lethargy differ?
Sleepiness is the ability to fall asleep very easily cf. general fatigue
What is the most common cause of daytime sleepiness?
Lifestyle - not enough sleep
What are some DDx for daytime sleepiness?
Sleep breathing disorder
Restless leg syndrome
Why does the tongue fall back?
Loss of genioglossus muscle tone
What is the sex proportions for OSA?
24% of males
8% of females
What are the cardinal symptoms of OSA?
What are some consequences of OSA?
- Excessive sleepiness
- Psychologic problems
- Cor pulmonale
- Arrhythmias/sudden death
What are some risk factors for OSA?
Upper airway morphology
What is a significant desaturation during an apnoea?
How is OSA diagnosed?
Number of events per hour (apnoea hypopnoea index)
What is the definition of an apnoea?
Complete cessation of airflow for 10s or longer
What is an hypopnoea?
30% or more reduction in airflow associated with >3% O2 desaturation or an alpha wave arousal from sleep
How do you assess whether some with diagnosed OSA needs treatment?
Chance of long term adverse complications
When is surgery used in OSA?
What are some conservative management options for OSA?
How does CPAP work?
Continuous positive pressure to open up airways
What is the most common second line therapy for OSA?
Mandibular advancement splint