Flashcards in Oncologic disorders Deck (40):
pattern of growth in which cells lack normal characteristics and differ in shape and organization with respect to their cells of origin; usually, anaplastic cells are malignant
growth of new blood vessels that allow cancer cells to grow
a normal cell mechanism of programmed cell death
not cancerous; benign tumors may grow but are unable to spread to other organs or body parts
delivery of radiation therapy through internal implants placed inside or adjacent to the tumor
a group of disorders characterized by abnormal cell proliferation, in which cells ignore growth-regulating signals in the surrounding environment
rocess of transforming normal cells into malignant cells
chemicals, physical factors, and other agents that cause cancer
the use of medications to kill tumor cells by interfering with cellular functions and reproduction`
substances produced primarily by cells of the immune system to enhance production and functioning of components of the immune system
leakage of intravenous medication from the veins into the subcutaneous tissues
identification of the type of tissue from which the tumor originated and the degree to which the tumor cells retain the functional and structural characteristics of the tissue of origin
graft-versus-host disease (GVHD)
an immune response initiated by T lymphocytes of donor tissue against the recipient’s tissues (skin, gastrointestinal tract, liver); an undesirable response
the donor immune cell response against the malignancy; a desirable response
having cells or processes that are characteristic of cancer
spread of cancer cells from the primary tumor to distant sites
inflammation of the lining of the mouth, throat, and gastrointestinal tract often associated with cancer therapies
suppression of the blood cell–producing function of the bone marrow
lowest point of white blood cell depression after therapy that has toxic effects on the bone marrow
uncontrolled cell growth that follows no physiologic demand; cancer
abnormally low absolute neutrophil count
field or study of cancer
relief of symptoms and promotion of comfort and quality of life regardless of the disease stage
using advances in research, technology, and policies to develop individualized plans of care to prevent and treat disease
the use of ionizing radiation to kill malignant cells
process of determining the extent of disease, including tumor size and spread or metastasis to distant sites
inflammation of the oral tissues, often associated with some chemotherapeutic agents and radiation therapy to the head and neck region.
Offer soft bristle tooth brush, Magic Mouth wash, ice chips if they're not NPO
cancer treatments that seek to minimize the negative effects on healthy tissues by disrupting specific cancer cell functions (such as malignant transformation), metabolism, communication pathways, processes for growth and metastasis, and genetic coding
decrease in the number of circulating platelets; associated with the potential for bleeding
substance that can cause inflammation, damage, and necrosis with extravasation from blood vessels and contact with tissues
what are the etiologies involving cancer?
viruses and bacteria, physical agents, chemicals, genetic or familial factors, lifestyle factors, and hormones.
Physical factors associated with carcinogenesis
exposure to sunlight, radiation, chronic irritation or inflammation, tobacco carcinogens, industrial chemicals and asbestos.
Chemicals & hazardous factors whose toxic effects alter DNA
aromatic amines and aniline dyes; pesticides and formaldehydes; arsenic, soot, and tars; asbestos; benzene; cadmium; chromium compounds; nickel and zinc ores; wood dust; beryllium compounds; and polyvinyl chloride. Betel nut and lime.
most common radiation therapy. Precise, invisible beam that penetrates the body to target tumor.
localized implantation or systemic radionuclide administration. Brachytherapy is the most common.
placement of radioactive sources within or next to cancer site. Intense radiation.
Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
Used for solid tumors, malignancies. Bone marrow and umbilical cord blood is used to harvest stem cells to treat cancer by introducing stem cells to eradicate malignant cells
used in combination with chemotherapy to break down cell walls allowing the chemo to work more effectively on the cancer cells.