Oncologic disorders Flashcards Preview

Med Surg > Oncologic disorders > Flashcards

Flashcards in Oncologic disorders Deck (40):
1

alopecia

Hair loss

2

anaplasia

pattern of growth in which cells lack normal characteristics and differ in shape and organization with respect to their cells of origin; usually, anaplastic cells are malignant

3

angiogenesis

growth of new blood vessels that allow cancer cells to grow

4

apoptosis

a normal cell mechanism of programmed cell death

5

benign

not cancerous; benign tumors may grow but are unable to spread to other organs or body parts

6

brachytherapy

delivery of radiation therapy through internal implants placed inside or adjacent to the tumor

7

Cancer

a group of disorders characterized by abnormal cell proliferation, in which cells ignore growth-regulating signals in the surrounding environment

8

carcinogenesis

rocess of transforming normal cells into malignant cells

9

carcinogens

chemicals, physical factors, and other agents that cause cancer

10

chemotherapy

the use of medications to kill tumor cells by interfering with cellular functions and reproduction`

11

cytokines

substances produced primarily by cells of the immune system to enhance production and functioning of components of the immune system

12

extravasation

leakage of intravenous medication from the veins into the subcutaneous tissues

13

grading

identification of the type of tissue from which the tumor originated and the degree to which the tumor cells retain the functional and structural characteristics of the tissue of origin

14

graft-versus-host disease (GVHD)

an immune response initiated by T lymphocytes of donor tissue against the recipient’s tissues (skin, gastrointestinal tract, liver); an undesirable response

15

graft-versus-tumor effect

the donor immune cell response against the malignancy; a desirable response

16

malignant:

having cells or processes that are characteristic of cancer

17

metastasis

spread of cancer cells from the primary tumor to distant sites

18

mucositis

inflammation of the lining of the mouth, throat, and gastrointestinal tract often associated with cancer therapies

19

myelosuppression

suppression of the blood cell–producing function of the bone marrow

20

nadir

lowest point of white blood cell depression after therapy that has toxic effects on the bone marrow

21

neoplasia

uncontrolled cell growth that follows no physiologic demand; cancer

22

neutropenia

abnormally low absolute neutrophil count

23

oncology

field or study of cancer

24

palliation

relief of symptoms and promotion of comfort and quality of life regardless of the disease stage

25

precision medicine

using advances in research, technology, and policies to develop individualized plans of care to prevent and treat disease

26

radiation therapy

the use of ionizing radiation to kill malignant cells

27

staging

process of determining the extent of disease, including tumor size and spread or metastasis to distant sites

28

stomatitis

inflammation of the oral tissues, often associated with some chemotherapeutic agents and radiation therapy to the head and neck region.
Offer soft bristle tooth brush, Magic Mouth wash, ice chips if they're not NPO

29

targeted therapies

cancer treatments that seek to minimize the negative effects on healthy tissues by disrupting specific cancer cell functions (such as malignant transformation), metabolism, communication pathways, processes for growth and metastasis, and genetic coding

30

thrombocytopenia

decrease in the number of circulating platelets; associated with the potential for bleeding

31

vesicant

substance that can cause inflammation, damage, and necrosis with extravasation from blood vessels and contact with tissues

32

what are the etiologies involving cancer?

viruses and bacteria, physical agents, chemicals, genetic or familial factors, lifestyle factors, and hormones.

33

Physical factors associated with carcinogenesis

exposure to sunlight, radiation, chronic irritation or inflammation, tobacco carcinogens, industrial chemicals and asbestos.

34

Chemicals & hazardous factors whose toxic effects alter DNA

aromatic amines and aniline dyes; pesticides and formaldehydes; arsenic, soot, and tars; asbestos; benzene; cadmium; chromium compounds; nickel and zinc ores; wood dust; beryllium compounds; and polyvinyl chloride. Betel nut and lime.

35

external radiation

most common radiation therapy. Precise, invisible beam that penetrates the body to target tumor.

36

internal radiation

localized implantation or systemic radionuclide administration. Brachytherapy is the most common.

37

Brachytherapy

placement of radioactive sources within or next to cancer site. Intense radiation.

38

Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

Used for solid tumors, malignancies. Bone marrow and umbilical cord blood is used to harvest stem cells to treat cancer by introducing stem cells to eradicate malignant cells

39

Hyperthermia treatment

used in combination with chemotherapy to break down cell walls allowing the chemo to work more effectively on the cancer cells.

40

Cancer Vaccine example

Cerarix (gardacil) HPV prophylaxis.