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Flashcards in Oncology Deck (90)
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1

complex group of diseases which starts when cells grow out of control and damage the DNA of that cell

cancer

2

increase in number of cells (calluses)

hyperplasia

3

abnormal cells proliferating (benign or malignant)

neoplasia

4

immature cell abnormality, irregular, disorganized and undifferentiated

dysplasia

5

mature cell type conversation (cells change)

metaplasia

6

malignant transformation

anaplasia

7

proto-oncogene

controls growth of cells

8

oncogene

uncontrolled cell growth

9

tumor suppressor gene

slows down cellular division, cause cell death

10

mutated tumor suppressor

uncontrolled cell growth

11

what are the 3 characters needed in order to have "well differentiated" cells

resemble normal cells
mature cells
function more like normal cells

12

if a cell is well differentiated how will it grow and what kind will it be

it will grow slower, be less aggressive and typically benign

13

if a cell is poorly differentiated how will it grow and what will it be

will grow faster, more aggressive, and malignant

14

grow only locally and cannot spread by invasion or metastasis

benign (not cancer)

15

invade neighboring tissues, enter blood vessels, and metastasize to different sites

malignant (cancer)

16

it is important to know where the _______ cancer began so they can _____ that

primary; treat

17

"fingers" of cancer cells invade surrounding tissue

locally invasive

18

malignant cells travel through blood or lymph system and invade other tissues or organs to form secondary tumor

metastasis

19

what are the 4 common sites of metastases

brain, lung, liver, bone

20

what are the 5 hallmark of hereditary cancer syndrome

-cancer in 2 or more relatives
-cancer in family member <50y/o
-same type of cancer in multiple family members
-rare type of cancer in 1 or more family members
-family members with more than 1 type of cancer

21

what can viruses cause in our body

long term inflammation which can suppress the immune system which directly affects the cells DNA

22

most common STD in the U.S.

HPV

23

primary prevention

health promotion and illness prevention (avoid carcinogen and get adequate nutrition)

24

secondary prevention

screenings, dx and tx of illness (goal is to halt the progress of cancer through early screening and diagnosis)

25

chemoprevention

use of substances to lower the risk of cancer (tamoxifen and raloxifine) also selenium

26

reduces risk of breast cancer

tamoxien and raloxifene

27

reduced risk of prostate cancer

selenium

28

tertiary prevention

disease tx and rehab, health restoration (goal is to prevent FURTHER deterioration)

29

what types of screenings are there

physical exam
lab tests
imaging procedures
genetic testing

30

when should a person get colorectal screening

men and women beginning at age 50 should follow either the fecal occult blood test, flexible sigmoidoscopy, or the colonoscopy