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Flashcards in Gastrointestinal Deck (62)
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1

what does the GI system involve

oral cavity
esophagus
stomach
small intestines
large intestines
digestion
elimination

2

what three main problems happen within the esophagus

Dysphagia, achalasia, and GERD

3

difficulty swallowing

dysphagia

4

what diseases/occurrences cause dysphagia

parkinsons
multiple sclerosis
dementia
stroke
trauma

5

when people have dysphagia they tend to be

dehydrated, have weight loss, malnutrition, and aspiration

6

what are S/S of dysphagia

drooling, increased oral secretions
coughing or choking at meals
hoarseness or increased throat clearing
gurgling voice

7

for those who have difficulty swallowing and are at risk for aspiration pneumonia what are a few interventions we can help them

HOB raised for at least 30 minutes after meals
give them easier food to chew and thicken liquids

8

peristalsis lower 2/3 of the esophagus is absent (smooth muscle)

achalasia

9

what are symptoms of achalasia

might feel food sticking
foul breath
symptoms of GERD
belching

10

achalasia is a smooth muscle so it is a ______ problem

nerve

11

dysphagia is a ______ problem

mechanical

12

how do you manage esophageal problem

eat slow and lots of fluids
ccb and nitrates before meals
inject botox
pneumatic dilation

13

what is a problem of the stomach

peptic ulcer disease

14

what are risk factors of peptic ulcer disease

high stress life, large amount of caffeine, large amount of alcohol, long-term NSAID, H. Pylori

15

what is H. Pylori bacteria

it lives in the stomach and can live for a long time, some people may develop ulcers and some may not

16

what are the two clinical manifestations

gastric- 1-2 hr after meal burning
duodenal- 2-5 hr after meal burning/cpramping

17

where will gastric burning be located

higher in the stomach

18

where will duodenal burning/cramping be located

near small intestines

19

what are the 3 BIG complications of peptic ulcer

1. hemorrhage
2. perforation
3. gastric outlet obstruction

20

what are signs of hemorrhage

throwing up blood and poop in blood(melena)

21

what labs will be done to see how much blood is lost

H&H

22

ulcer has eaten a hole through the stomach and is perforated (can get septic)

perforation

23

things can not be dumped into small intestines because the inflammation at the end of the stomach

gastric outlet obstruction

24

what are nursing interventions for peptic ulcer disease

NPO
order to place NG tube
VS
Lab work
Pain meds
Antibiotics

25

why would a peptic ulcer pt be given antibiotics

because of H. Pylori and they will take it a full 14 days and need to FINISH the prescription

26

what is the main inflammatory intestinal disorder

diverticulitis

27

bulging pouches in the GI wall pushed the mucosal lining thru the surrounding muscle (sac like)

diverticulum

28

if theres not an inflammation of the diverticulum there is

not a problem

29

where is the diverticular disease most common

sigmoid colon

30

low _____ diet and ______ contributes to development and plays a major role in the development of _________

fiber; constipation; diverticulosis

31

sacklike herniation of the lining of the bowel (fine)

diverticulum

32

multiple diverticula present NO inflammation/systems (can have it but not an inflammation issue)

diverticulosis

33

infection/inflammation of the diverticulum (problems because now those little holes have inflammation because they are infected)

diverticulitis

34

undigested foods, especially seeds, mix with bacteria and accumulate in diverticula sac forming a hard mass

diverticulitis

35

when food gets caught in the sac and gets infected on the outside making it rupture (perforate) what happens to what is inside the intestines

it will dump into the gut and cause problems

36

what are clinical manifestations of diverticulitis

pain, fever, vomiting, WBC up, abd pain, X-ray shows air in the gut

37

peritonitis is due to ________

diverticulitis rupture

38

what are dx tests for peptic ulcer disease

barium enema
colonoscopy

39

if pt was going in for a barium enema what would you teach

liquid is white and chalky so the very first bm may be white and chalky

40

what type of surgery is done for diverticulitis

bowel resection to take out the perforation or the part that is sick
colostomy is done to give the bowel a break (temporary)

41

what are nursing interventions for diverticulitis

maintain I&Os, teach foods that trigger, increase fiber/soft diet, antibiotic, stool softener, ambulation

42

what are the 2 inflammatory bowel disease

crown's disease and ulcerative colitis

43

can start form the mouth tho the anus (goes all the way through)

crohn's disease

44

can infect multiple sections, skipping around

crohn's disease

45

what would the bowel look like on a scope of crohn's disease

cobble stoney

46

what are clinical manifestations of crohn's disease

family hx, anemic, chronic diarrhea, weight loss, malabsorption

47

what is the BIGGEST catch of crohn's disease

malabsorption

48

crohn's disease is ______ which means it goes all the way through the layers of the _______

transmural; intestines

49

so if there is another intestines on top of the transmural area it will

eat through that one as well

50

is crohn's disease curable

NOOOOO

51

what if the bowel is so bad due to crohn's disease

they remove it and give a colostomy or get a resection

52

where is ulcerative colitis typically located

the colon (large intestines)

53

what will ulcerative colitis look like inside by a scope

red and bloody

54

what are clinical manifestations of ulcerative colitis

NOT transmural, cramps, anema, fever, weight loss, chronic diarrhea (bloody)

55

what are severe symptoms of ulcerative colitis

tachycardia
hypotension (fluid loss)
tachypnea
dehydrated (lots of stool)

56

what labs would be done on ulcerative colitis pt

H&H, WBC, Lytes (potassium, sodium)

57

75% will have surgery- bowel resection (NOT A CURE) will have recurrence of the disease

crohn's disease

58

25% will have total colectomy (CURED but permanent colostomy)

ulcerative colitis

59

occurs when intestinal contents cannot pass through GI tract; requires prompt treatment

intestinal obstruction

60

what are the two types of intestinal obstruction and what do they mean

mechanical= occlusion or blockage of lumen from tumor or it gets twisted
nonmechanical= most often from a neuromuscular disorder (decrease in the peristalsis)

61

what intestinal obstruction will not be presented quickly and takes longer to realize

large bowel obstruction

62

steps out from the colon wall, and remove with a colonoscopy

polyps