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Flashcards in CVPV Exam Deck (155)
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1

what are the risk factors for Hypertension

family history
increasing age
cigarette smoking
obesity
heavy alcohol consumption
Black race
Men (early to mid adulthood)
women (over 50s)
high dietary sodium intake
low dietary intake of K, Ca, Mg
glucose intolerance

2

what doe the AHA recommend for alcohol

2 drinks a day for men
1 drink a day for women

3

what is considered moderate alcohol consumption a week

2-3 drinks per weekw

4

what is known as the silent killer

hypertension

5

why is hypertension known as the silent killer

early stages of disease have no clinical manifestations other than elevated blood pressure readings

6

what are S/S of hypertension

asymptomatic
HA
visual disturbances
chest pain
flushed face
epistaxis
diziness

7

what are the two major mechanisms of tissue damage

ischemia and edema

8

how does hypertension cause edema

vessels get torn up and fluids start to seep outside the vessel

9

what begins to get complicated with HTN

heart and kidneys

10

kidneys are _____ structures and the _____ pressure will tear the kidneys apart

small; high

11

a hypertensive heart thickens the walls of the...

ventricles

12

HTN can cause

stroke
arteriosclerosis
heart attack
kidney failure

13

hypertension could be caused by taking meds that cause it or could be because they have

kidney disease that cause high BP

14

an irregular heart beat is not picked up on bp machine so what should you do

manually auscultate BP

15

what is white coat syndrome

BP increases when pt goes to the doctors office... take BP at home and log it

16

what lab test shows us kidney function

urine test, BUN and creatinine

17

what labs predisposes pt to hypertension

K, Ca, Mg

18

what are the treatment goals of hypertension

focus on systolic
<140/90 mmHg
preexisting conditons (diabetes, renal disease, heart disease)

19

how do you find pulse pressure

subtracting diastolic from systolic

20

what are 4 treatment options for hypertension

lifestyle modifications
Dash Diet
Exercise
Moderate alcohol consumption

21

what consists of the dash diet

desirable to soncume no more than 1500mg of sodium daily, eliminate soups, ready made dinners, processed meats, no added salt

22

what is always important in the success of treatment

pt compliance

23

once a pt receives a dx of hypertension they should be evaluated every _____ until their goal is reached, then about every ____ months

month; 3-6 months

24

what are S/S of orthostatic hypotension

Dizziness
blurring or loss of vision
syncope and fainting

25

orthostatic hypertension is very common after a _____ in _____ adults

meal; older

26

how should we monitor orthostatic BP

lying/sitting/standing BP (3-4xday)
a decrease of more than 20 systolic and 10 diastolic
tilt table test

27

what is the treatment of orthostatic hypotension

eliminate any known cause
assist pt when sitting/standing
supportive devices
fall precautions

28

what is the prevention/treatment of atherosclerosis/coronary artery disease

Diet
exercise
medications
tobacco cessation
Managing HTN
controlling DM
managing stress

29

what is a vasoconstrictor

nicotine

30

what are the 3 evaluations of chest pain

physical assessment
EKG
Lab