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12th grade > Online gov > Flashcards

Flashcards in Online gov Deck (127):
1

Government

group of ppl entrust with making/enforcing laws/policies agreed upon by population
PROTECT PPL'S POSSESSIONS

2

how gov started

early ppl lived simply and share food/stuff. as group grew larger, life is difficult n gov grew in size/power.

3

Gov has 3 kinds of power

legislative
executive
judicial

4

legislative power

power to make laws-CONGRESS

5

executive power

power to enforce laws-PRESIDENT

6

judicial power

settle arguments n decide meaning of law=constitutional
SUPREME COURT

7

constitution

where gov outlines their power

8

dictatorship

country where one person/group has power/responsibilities to carry out gov law
authoritarian

9

democracy

ppl hold the power

10

politics

process of how society decides how gov is run/ how leaders chosen

11

public policy

law n goals that gov follows

12

state

territory that has a gov w/absolute power to decide policies

13

4 characteristics of state.
states must have

population

territory

sovereignty: ability to make/enforce policies within it border

gov

14

origin of state-theories

force
evolutionary
divine right
social contract

15

force theory

state began when a small group takes over another area n force ppl to follow their rules

16

evolutionary theory

began as a family (already w/ gov n territory) that grew as related family joins/cooperate

17

divine right theory

god created state n gave royals "divine right" to rule

18

Social Contract theory

USA ppl come together w/ common need for security=stateppl gave power to gov

19

Preamble of constitution

outline role/purpose of gov

20

- form a more perfect union

diff states joining 2 protect their independence

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- establish justice

create laws: reasonable/fair

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- insure domestic tranquility

gov provides peace/order

23

- provide for common defense

gov must protect w/ army

24

- promote the general wellfare

gov must provide for the need of the ppl: school/road

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secure the blessing of liberty

gov offers freedom to all

26

ways gov are classified

number of ppl participating in running gov

the way the state divides gov's power geographically

relationship btw legislative/executive

27

ber of ppl participating in running gov

democratic or dictatorship

28

representative democracy
indirect democracy
gov by popular consent

most common
small group of ppl is chosen to represent the ppl

29

direct democracy
pure democracy

ppl themselves create laws/policies
only in local towns/communities

30

totalitarian

private/public life of citizens r controlled/monitored

31

autocracy

single person holds power

32

oligarchy

small group of ppl holds power
most commonly: ppl compete for power

33

power distribution geographically

federal gov
confederate
unitary

34

federal government

national gov n states r equal USA

35

confederate government

most power belongs to local/regional gov

central can't make laws, just deal w/ trade,foreign

36

unitary government

most power resides in central gov

37

relationship btw legislative/executive branches

presidential
parliamentary

38

presidential gov USA

executive/legislative branches r separate but equal. check n balances

39

parliamentary gov UK N OTHER DEMOC

executive: prime minister n their cabinet
executive are part of parliament: fewer conflict btw

40

Foundation of democracy

every person has worth/dignity, freedom and is equal.
Majority rule (insist on minority rights)
Compromise
can't take away freedom of another
BALANCE BTW FREEDOM/LAW

41

citizenship

hold certain rights, duties, responsibilities

42

citizens duties

required, for benefit of the citizen
pay taxes, going to school, obey laws

43

citizen responsibilities

encourage
voting/helping in the community

44

Free enterprise system- capitalism

reinforces belief in individual freedom
business competition: driving force
workers compete for jobs
consumer benefit from low prices, buy/sell good/services
gov: pass laws/regulation

45

law of supply/demand

increase supply: decrease price

46

constitutional convention

held in philadelphia state house
secretive
delegates agreed not to discuss convention business with outsiders
did not want public to be allowed to judge their ideas until they were finished

Gw= leader
ministers to europe were not there
Tjefferson=france
John Adam=britain

lots of compromise

47

Framers of the constitution

delegates to constitutional convention
important, fought in revolution
young men
diverse background

48

father of constitution

james madison
contribute more than others, record most of the events
want to remove articles of confederation
help create bill of rights. National gov should serve citizen not states. 4th president

49

george washington

commander of the continental army
most admired American bc military leadership
unanimous vote for him

50

alexander hamilton

lawyer, signer of constitution

51

robert morris

major financier of the revolution

52

Ben Franklin

writer
inventor
diplomat
legislator
printer

53

George Mason

author of virginia declaration of rights

54

Virginia plan

strong central gov w/ 3 Branches
bicameral legislature/congress
representatives were linked to wealth/population

HOUSE: members elected from each state
SENATE: chosen by House

Congress would choose National Executive and Judiciary

states have representative gov

55

New Jersey Plan

suggested by smaller states
no branches
unicameral congress w/ states represented equally
congress could impose taxes n regulate trade
executive: more than one person

56

Great Compromise
Connecticut

2 legislature
one part: chosen according to population
other part: have 2 representative from each state

57

3/5 compromise

whether slaves should b counted for tax collection
5 slaves=3 freeman
were counted to figure out how much states owed the fed gov in taxes

allow for south to count their slaves

58

Interstate trade compromise

trade btw states controlled by congress
states control trade within their own territory

59

trade btw countries regulation compromise

North: congress control it
South: No bc export large amt of rice/tobacco. were afraid of loosing the trade if congress taxed goods

Congress could tax imports but not exports

60

Slave compromise

south worried congress would stop slave trade. so congress couldn't end slave trade for 20 yrs

61

after Compromises

Not all delegates were willing to sign so the final paragraph were worded carefully to give the impression of unanimity

62

For ratification of Constitution

Federalist favored it bc strong national gov. Strong central authority was necessary to defend the nation and unity
check and balances
independent judicial branch

63

Federalist ppl

Alexander Hamilton
James Madison
John Kay

64

Federalist

wrote essay under name Pubius called Federalist Papers that explained new gov n persuade ppl to join it

65

Rule of the Law

gov leaders must act according to the law. no one is above it. Military is under civilian control

66

Enumerated powers

18 powers of congress written into Constitution

67

Anti Constitution

Anti-Federalist
stronger state gov
Constitution would take away individual n state rights
National gov would be too powerful

68

Anti Federalist ppl

Patrick Henry
John Hancock

69

Agreement btw Federalist and AntiFederalist

Federalist agreed to add amendments to the Constitution to protect ppl's basic rights: Bill of Rights

70

States Ratifications

delaware= first
Virginia/ NY= strugle
9 states were needed

71

Starting new gov

NYC temp capital- GW took oath there
then moved to Philadelphia then to Washington DC

72

First Congress gathering

states elected senator and representative to serve in the new Congress.
Bc it lacked quorum (majority) and couldn't finish counting the votes for president until a month lator

73

Purpose of Constitution

how new gov should b set up and run
outlines basic principles of gov and how leaders are elected.
Gov must follow certain rules and limits written by Framers

74

popular sovereignty

voters express their will to the gov

75

Structure of Constitution

Begins Preamble/intro
7 sections/articles
The 27 amendment

76

Constitution articles

First 3: outline the 3 branches l,e,j

4th: relationship btw national gov n state (and among states)

5th: explains how amend were added

6th: it is the law of the land, national debt, oaths of office

7th: ratification

77

6 principles necessary for democratic gov

pop sovereignty
limit gov
separation of power
checks and balances
judicial review
federalism

78

popular soverignty

ppl holds all political power
ppl choose leaders who will do what they want
express the will of the ppl
gov get its power from the ppl
state leaders- elected

79

2nd amendment

gun control
a well-regulated militia necessary to security
right of ppl to keep/bear arm

80

Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act

requires 5 day waiting period to buy handgun n require background checks

81

legislative power

make laws
approve appointments president makes
impeach fed justice n president
approve treaties
create low courts
overrides veto w/ 2/3 majority
approve $ country spends

82

Executive power

veto bills
appoint officials- ambassador/judges
cals special sessions of Congress

83

Judicial power

tell what laws mean and whether it agrees to constitution. if not Congress has to change or make new
declare other branch's action constitutional

84

Judicial review

court's power to decide whether or not an action of gov is constitutional
this is not identified in constitution

Marbury v Maison

85

Federalism

a gov system where power is divided btw fed and stte gov

both would have their own agencies/official and pass laws
limit powers of fed gov

86

principle

a basic truth, law or ideal behavior

87

Amendments

change to the constitution. Article 5 tells how changes can b made in constitution
1st: propose
2nd: ratify

when congress proposes, it chooses how to ratify

88

Amendments proposed by Congress

2/3 vote in both senate and house

Then sent to state legislature. 3/4 must ratify (38 states)
26 amendments done this way

Sent to state conventions. Ratifies by 3/4 of them. 21st amendment: repealing

89

amendments proposed at national convention

proposed at national convention called by congress when requested by 2/3 of state legislature

Ratified by 3/4 state legislature (never done b4)

Ratified by conventions in 3/4 of the states (ex. Constitution)

90

ratifying convention

delegates are chosen baed on their stand on the amendment

popular sovereignty

91

state legislation

elected for many reason

92

ratification of amendment

amendment (proposed by Congress) can't be approved until ratified by state legislature

state legislature can ask for ppl to advise the legislature before decision

93

state ratification of amendment

If reject: can late change its decision n ratify
If approves: cannot change decision

Congress can set time limit on ratification period (7 yrs)

94

1

freedom of religion, speech, press, assembly

95

2

right to bear arms

96

3

protection from having to house soldier w/o consent

97

4

protection against searches/seizures w/p probable cause

98

5

protection from testifying against oneself, being tried for the same crime twice,
prosecution w/o accusation,
loss w/o due process of law or compensation

99

6

rights to a speedy trial by fair jury
inform of charges
cross examine witness
present witness
attorney

100

7

right to trial by jury

101

8

protection from excessive bail/fine and cruel punishment

102

9

other unwritten rights for ppl not stated in constitution

103

10

powers not belonging to fed is given to state

104

11

states can't be sued by citizen in other states

105

12

chang in electoral college

106

13

outlawed slavery

107

14

defined citizenship (esp AA

108

15

aa men rights to vote

109

16

congress given power to tax income

110

17

US senators elected by the ppl

111

18

prohibition of alcohol (noble experiment)

112

19

women vote

113

20

change dates president and congressional terms

114

21

ends alcohol prohibition
repeal 18

115

22

limit a president for 2 terms
after FDR 4 terms

116

23

allow ppl in washington DC to vote

117

24

end poll taxes

118

25

who replaces president if office becomes vacant

119

26

18 yrs to vote
result of vietnam war

120

27

congress pay raises not effective until next congress election

forbid members of congress from raising their own pay during same term

took 200 yrs to b ratified

121

ERA

equal rights amendment for women
almost passed, 3 states short

122

informal amendments sources

Basic legislation
executive action
court decision
party
custom

expansion of powers written in constitution

123

Basic legislation
informal amendments

congress pass laws that help explain meaning of parts of constitution
passed Judiciary Act: can create fed courts (not supreme court)
set up other agencies, department, offices in executive branch
Constitution lets Congress regulate commerce so Congress passed thousands of laws about it

124

Executive action
informal amendments

Thomas Jefferson- Louisiana Purchse

Executive agreement: agreement btw president n leaders of a foreign country don't have to b approved by congress

Method to deliever state of the union address (president is required by constitution og periodically address Congress). now: televised annually. written is also common

125

Judicial Actions
informal amendments

Judicial review: not specifically mentioned in Constition

126

Parties
informal amendments

constitution don't mention political parties, GW feared it would divide. It doesn't say how candidates for president should b nominated so parties decide which decrease electoral college's importance

127

Custom
informal amendments

followed but not written into constitution

head of executive department= cabinet/advisors
VP replace after he/she died-25 amendment
no third term - 22 amendment