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Flashcards in apes midterm Deck (148):
1

Broad-spectrum pesticides may increase the number of a pest species through?

Development of genetic resistance

Killing of predators of the pest species

Killing of parasites that may have kept the population of the pest low

All of these answers

all of these answers

2

All of the following are advantages of biological control except that it?

U.S. farmers save $25 for each $1 invested in biological controls

Minimizes the development of genetic resistance

Is nontoxic to non-target species

Focuses on selected target species

Requires little research and development

Requires little research and development

3

Salt buildup may?

Eventually kill weeds

Eventually make the land unproductive

Increase yields

Increase crop growth

None of these answers

Eventually make the land unproductive

4

In most modern agriculture, which of the following effects is agriculture least likely to have on soil resources?

Replenishment of soil fertility

Desertification

Waterlogging

Erosion

salinization

replenishment of soil fertility

5

Which of the following foods is most likely to be contaminated by pesticides?

Cucumbers
Strawberries
Apples
Green beans
Celery

strawberries

6

Integrated pesticide management (IPM) could be promoted by all of the following strategies except:

Gradually phasing in subsidies for farmers who depend primarily on pesticides.

Setting up federally supported IPM demonstration projects in each county

Training USDA field personnel and county farm agents so they can help farmers with this strategy.

providing federal or state subsidies for farmers who use use IPM

Adding a sales tax on pesticides to fund IPM research and education

Gradually phasing in subsidies for farmers who depend primarily on pesticides.

7

Which of the following is not a detrimental environmental effect of the Green Revolution?

Emergence of pesticide-resistant insects

Degradation of land resources

Salinization of soils

Increase in irrigation worldwide

Boom in agricultural productivity

Boom in agricultural productivity

8

Deforestation, overgrazing, and the overworking of sol for sol for crop production can lead to which of the following?

Monoculture

Salinization

Desertification

Waterlogging

Increased crop rotation

desertification

9

Rotenone and pyrethrum are examples of ?

Chlorinated hydrocarbons

Soil sterilants

Organophosphates

Botanicals

carbamates

botanical

10

Out in your wheat in oklahoma, you decide to plant several different varieties of wheat. A student from oklahoma state university studying sustainable agriculture observes that you are practicing _______.

Agroforesty
Intercropping
Polyvarietal cultivation
Monoculture
polyculture

polyvarietal cultivation

11

All of the following crops commonly grown in plantation agriculture except

Sugarcane
Corn
Coffee
Cacao
Bananas

corn

12

The pesticide treadmill involves?

Use of stronger doses of pesticides

A switch to new chemicals

Use of more frequent doses of pesticides

All of the above

None of the above

all

13

The term undernutrition refers to people who?

Eat too much

Eat balanced meals

Eat less than the basic minimum number of daily calories

Eat too much protein

Suffer from poor food quality

Eat less than the basic minimum number of daily calories

14

Which of the following factors did NOT contribute to the Dust Bowl in the United States?

Desertification
Drought
Soil erosion
Removal of vegetation cover
No till agriculture

no till agri

15

Which of the following practices leads to desertification?

Surface mining
Soil compaction
Overgrazing
Irrigation
All of the above

all

16

Which of the following statements is false?

Integrated pest management involves multiple sampling of the pest population

In integrated pest management, small amounts of pesticides are used at critical times

Integrated pest management is a multidimensional control program

The goal of integrated pest control is the complete eradication of the pest

In integrated pest management, controlling pests may include vacuuming up harmful bugs.


The goal of integrated pest control is the complete eradication of the pest

17

20% silt, 10% clay, 70% sand

Sandy loam
Silt loam
Clay
Sandy clay loam

sandy loam

18

conservation tillage?

Decreases erosion

Accelerates water loss from the soil

Increases labor costs
Increases erosion
Increases energy consumption

decreases erosion

19

Most soil erosion is caused by?

Volcanoes
Wind
Earthquakes
Excess heat
Moving water

moving water

20

The 3 grains that provide more than half of the total calories consumed worldwide are________.

Soybeans, rice, and wheat

Wheat, barley, and flax seed

Oats, rye, and wheat

Rice, wheat, corn

Corn, millet, sorghum

Rice, wheat, corn

21

Global security can be increased by all of the following except?

Reducing poverty
Increasing population
Preventing topsoil erosion
Minimizing overgrazing
Halting desertification

increasing population

22

The genetically engineered golden rice has been developed to do which of the following?

Have long-lasting freshness
Resist pests
Provide vitamin a
Produce more seeds
Resist the harm caused by frost

provide vitamin a

23

Switching to integrated pest management?

Will be hard to do because it requires a break from tradition

Is difficult because farmers get most of their information from pesticide sales people or USDA county agents who have supported pesticide use in the past

Is strongly supported by environmentalists

Is strongly opposed by politically or economically powerful agricultural chemical companies

All of these

all

24

Concerns have been raised about possible links between low levels of pesticides and

Birth defects
Immune system disorders
Genetic mutation
Nervous system disorders
All of the these answers

all

25

Administration of ___ will prevent the majority of blindness in developing countries in the world.

Immunizing shots
Proteins
Iodine

Sugar and salt in a glass of water

Vitamin a capsules

vitamin a capsules

26

The correct sequence for the efficiency of converting grain into animal protein for the following animals, (in terms of kilograms of grain needed per kilogram of body weight), most efficient to least efficient is

Catfish chicken pigs beef cattle

Pigs, beef cattle, catfish, chicken

Beef cattle, pigs, chicken, catfish

Catfish, pigs, chicken, beef cattle

Beef cattle, chicken, pigs, catfish

c. beef cattle pigs chicken catfish

27

Malnutrition and associated infection could be reduced by?

Encouraging breast-feeding

Immunization

Teaching women about child care and water sterilization

All of the above

None of the above

all

28

Benefits of aquaculture include?

Creation of jobs

Use of less fuel than conventional fishing methods

High yields per unit area

All of the above

None of the above

all

29

Which of the following best describes traditional subsistence agriculture?

Produces large quantities of a single product

Provides the food for one family

Often uses high-tech equipment

Common in developed countries

Commonly employs genetically modified crops

provides the food for one family

30

All of the following statements about an IPM Plan are true except:

An IPM plan takes into account the weather and climate in an area

An IPM plan uses natural enemies to control pests

IPM plans may include suggestions for human behavior modification

No pesticides are used in an IPM; only natural methods are used.

Cultural control methods are applied in an IPM plan

No pesticides are used in an IPM; only natural methods are used.

31

Which of the following is not one of the three major types of organic fertilizer?

Animal manure
Sewage sludge
Green manure
Compost
None of the above

sewage sludge

32

Industrialized agriculture requires large inputs of

Inorganic fertilizers
Pesticides
Water
Fossil fuels
All of the above

all

33

Which of the following types of agriculture is most characteristic of developing countries?

High input agriculture

Industrialized agriculture

Traditional intensive agriculture

Plantation agriculture

Traditional subsistence agriculture

Traditional subsistence agriculture

34

Which of the following is major environmental impact of livestock production?

Dispersion of livestock operations throughout the country

Bad smells

Animal rights groups releasing domestic livestock

Diets high in beef contain too much fat

Water pollution

water pollution

35

The practice of planting only one crop on a plot of land

monoculture

36

Can reduce the amount of organic matter and oxygen in the soil

soil degration

37

Can lead to a buildup of a layer of salt on the surface

irrigation genetically engineered plants

38

may lead to the production of more nutritious food

fertilizer

39

Overuse of groundwater can lead to

Saltwater intrusion
Aquifer depletion
Subsidence
All of these answers
None of these answers

all

40

In a septic tank system, which of the following is not true?

Wastewater is pumped into a settling tank

After leaving the absorption field, wastewater is cleaned and can be used again for human consumption.

Bacteria treated waste is discharged in an absorption field

Solid are decomposed by bacteria

Grease and oil rise to the top in the bacteria

After leaving the absorption field, wastewater is cleaned and can be used again for human consumption.

41

Which of the following statements about desalination is true?

Desalination is expensive

Desalination is the best approach to solving irrigation problems.

Desalination is the best method of acquiring clear water for drinking

The greatest amount of desalination occurs in the United States.

The common methods of desalination are reverse-osmosis and evaporation.

desalination is expensive

42

Which of the following statements is false?

A slow-flowing rivers are less susceptible to pollutants than fast-flowing streams

Streams can recover from degradable pollutants as long as they are not overloaded.

Oxygen sag curves show the time and distance needed for a stream to recover

Requiring cities to withdraw water downstream of the city would reduce pollution

The width and depth of the oxygen sag curve is dependent on water volume and flow rate.

A slow-flowing rivers are less susceptible to pollutants than fast-flowing streams

43

In cultural eutrophication, game fish die from?

Toxic substances in the water.

Salt

Loss of space

Acid deposition

Suffocation from lack of oxygen

Suffocation from lack of oxygen

44

The only effective way to protect groundwater is to?

Treat all water from underground sources

Using advanced sewage treatment

Using monitoring wells

Prevent contamination

Cover all wells carefully

prevent contamination

45

Which of the following is a point source of water pollution

Livestock feedlots

Offshore oil wells

Parking lots

Urban lands

Croplands

offshore oil wells

46

Porous water-saturated layers of underground rock are
known as

Recharge areas
Water tables
Watersheds
Runoff areas
Aquifers

aquifers

47

All of the following are cleanup methods of controlling cultural eutrophication except?

Using advanced waste treatment

Pumping air through reservoirs to avoid oxygen depletion

Harvesting excess weeds

Treating plant growth with herbicides

None of the answers

using advanced waste tra waste treatment

48

All of the following methods are likely to aid restoration of Chesapeake Bay’s oyster population except?

Developing disease- resistant oyster stocks

Seeding protected oyster beds with large, older oysters.

Trying to find reef building substitute to hasten reef reconstruction

Developing new recipes for oyster stew to enhance public appreciation of oysters.

Developing new recipes for oyster stew to enhance public appreciation of oysters.

49

Which of the following types of sewage treatment is properly matched?

Secondary-mechanical process

Primary- biological process

Secondary-chemical process

Primary-chemical process

advanced -physical and chemical process

advanced -physical and chemical process

50

The majority of the oil pollution of the ocean come from?

Environmental terrorism

blowouts (rupture of a borehole of an oil rig in the ocean)

Tanker accidents

Normal operations of offshore wells

Runoff from land.

runoff

51

All of the following are ways to prevent or slow groundwater depletion except?

Subsidize water conservation

Buy and retire groundwater withdrawal rights

A ban on new well construction

Waste less water

Grow more water-intensive crops

Grow more water-intensive crops

52

Which of the following statements is false?

The amount of oxygen in rivers increases as the water’s temperature falls

In rapidly flowing rivers, dissolved oxygen is replaced quickly.

The amount of oxygen in rivers increases as the water’s temperature rises.

The amount of oxygen in rivers declines in dry seasons.

Because of their flow, most streams recover rapidly from pollution by heat and biodegradable waste.

The amount of oxygen in rivers increases as the water’s temperature rises.

53

Throughout the world, the most water is used for?

Needs of animals and humans

Cooling towers of power plants

Transportation

Irrigation

Industrial processes

irrigation

54

Farmers can sharply reduce fertilizer runoff by?

Using prescribes amts of fertilizer

control runoff

planting nitrogen-fixing plants

planting buffer zones between cultivated fields and surface water

all of these answers

all

55

Which of the following is false?

Oil spills can have a negative economic impact on coastal residents

The environment recovers more slowly from crude oil spills than from refined oil spills

Oil evaporates and undergoes decomposition

Recovery from oil spills is faster in warm water than in cold water

Estuaries and salt marshes suffer the most damage from oil pollution and cannot be effectively cleaned up

The environment recovers more slowly from crude oil spills than from refined oil spills

56

Water resources can be transferred from water-rich areas to water-poor areas through tunnels, pipes, and aqueducts. Disadvantages of the water transfer process include all of the following except:

Climate is altered

Capacity for agriculture is increased

Fisheries are threatened

Water salinity increases

Rivers are degraded

capacity for agriculture is increased

57

Which of the following would least likely reduce the nutrient loading into the Chesapeake Bay estuary?

Upgrade of current sewage treatment plants

Govt subsidies for cotton crops

Improvement of manure containment lagoons in feedlots

Replanting of riparian zones and sea grass beds

Reintroduction of native oyster beds

Replanting of riparian zones and sea grass beds

58

Which of the following statements about the Aral Sea is false?

The surface area has decreased by 54%

A large portion of native fish species have disappeared

The volume of the aral sea has dropped by about 75%

The salinity levels have risen threefold

Water has been diverted from the aral sea and the two rivers that replenish its water primarily for use in manufacturing

Water has been diverted from the aral sea and the two rivers that replenish its water primarily for use in manufacturing

59

A body of water can be depleted of its oxygen by?

Sediments and suspended matter

Organic wastes

Viruses and parasitic worms

Organic compounds such as oil, plastics, solvents, and detergents

All of these answers

Organic wastes

60

The term subsidence refers to?

Accumulation of silt behind a dam

Intrusion of saltwater into a freshwater aquifer

Failure of the groundwater supply

Loss of water due to evaporation

Sinking of ground when water has been withdrawn

Sinking of ground when water has been withdrawn

61

The leading nonpoint source of water pollution is?

Runoff from city streets and storm sewers

Municipal landfills

Agriculture

Industrial wastes

Leaks from offshore oil wells

agriculture

62

Which of the following statements is false?

Heat can lower dissolved oxygen and make fish vulnerable to disease

Organic wastes reduce the amt of in the water supply

Inorganic nutrients such as fertilizers have no adverse effects of aquatic ecosystems

Radioactive wastes and toxins can be concentrated by biological amplification

Sediment can cloud water and reduce photosynthesis

Inorganic nutrients such as fertilizers have no adverse effects of aquatic ecosystems

63

Which of the following is a nonpoint source of water pollution?

Logged forest

Active and inactive coal mines

Sewage treatment plant

Electric power plant

factories

logged forest

64

The effects of oil spill depend on the?

Distance of release from shore

Amt released

Type of oil (crude of refined)

Time of year

All of these answers

all

65

Which of the following statements is false?

The water table moves down in dry weather

Recharging of water is a slow process

Water is a confined aquifer is under pressure

The water table is located at the top of the zone of saturation

Groundwater is stationary and doesn't move

Groundwater is stationary and doesn't move

66

Large dams and reservoirs?

Are inexpensive to build

Cannot be used for outdoor recreation

Can be used to provide electric power

Reduce danger of flooding upstream

All of these answers

Can be used to provide electric power

67

Sustainable use of water?

Requires integrated governance of water pollution among all users of a watershed

Might be encouraged by water marketing

Requires integrated governance of water use, sewage treatment among all users of a watershed

Is discouraged by government subsidies of water

All of these answers


All of these answers

68

in most developed countries, large fish kills and contamination of drinking water are caused by?

Malfunctioning sewage treatment plants

Deliberate release of toxic industrial chemicals

Accidental release of toxic industrial chemicals

All of these answers

None of these answers

all

69

Nitrates and phosphates are examples of?

Oxygen-demanding wastes

Disease-causing agents

Sediment

Organic chemicals

Inorganic plant nutrients

Inorganic plant nutrients

70

Which of the following statements is false?

Human activities can accelerate the eutrophication process

Rivers are more vulnerable than lakes to contamination by plants nutrients, oil, toxins, and pesticides

Eutrophication is a natural process and can occur without the influence of humans

Acid deposition and fallout represent a more serious hazard to lakes than rivers

Eutrophication is caused by inputs of nutrients and silt from the surrounding land basin

Rivers are more vulnerable than lakes to contamination by plants nutrients, oil, toxins, and pesticides

71

Of the following organisms, the group that is least likely to cause disease is?

Algae
Bacteria
Viruses
Protozoa
Parasitic worms

algae

72

Porous layers of rock and soil that store freshwater

aquifer

73

Upper limit of the zone of saturation

water table

74

Precipitation which does not infiltrate the ground

runoff

75

Land area surrounding a particular body of water from which runoff drains

watershed

76

A resource that is too expensive to extract is said to be?

Perpetual
Economically depleted
Limited
Environmentally depleted
Ecologically depleted

economically depleted

77

Which of the following statements best illustrates the tragedy of the commons?

A factory pollutes a river as much as the law allows

Some activities harm the environment but others don't

Cropland can decrease biodiversity

Irrigated cropland can be ruined by salinization

Some levels of pollution are life threatening

A factory pollutes a river as much as the law allows

78

Effects of pollution might include?

Fish kills in lakes and streams

Acid rain-induced destruction of a statue in your city park

Spread of disease from an open dump

Being unable to see the top of skyscrapers because

All of these answers

all

79

An environmentally sustainable society?

Projects the prospects of future generations of humans and other species

Manages its economy and population size without doing irreparable environmental harm

Satisfies the needs of its people by harvesting without depleting earth’s capital

Meets the needs of its people without jeopardizing the needs of future generations

All of these answers

all

80

A community of living organisms interacting with one another and the physical and chemical factors of their nonliving environment is called

A population
A lithosphere
A species
A community
An ecosystem

ecosystem

81

Aerobic respiration requires

Oxygen and water
Co2 and h2o
Glucose and co2
Glucose and o2
Co2 and o2

glucose and o2

82

Exponential growth

Starts out slowly and remains slow

Remains constant

Starts rapidly and remains rapid

Starts out slowly then becomes very rapid

Starts rapidly then slows

Starts rapidly and remains rapid

83

In a typical soil profile, the topsoil is composed of?

The parent material
Leached material
Humus
Bedrock
The o and a horizon

humus

84

The market value in dollars of goods and services produced in a country for use within a year is the?

Per capita GDP

Per capita GNP

Gross national product

Gross growth product

Gross domestic product

gdp

85

Which is NOT a component of the water cycle?

The movement of nutrients is largely dependent on the water cycle

Most water is held in freshwater sources, such as rivers and lakes

The sun is a key component and acts as a power source for the water cycle

Water is stored in sinks, including ice caps, oceans, rivers, and lakes

Water vapor is considered an atmospheric gas

Most water is held in freshwater sources, such as rivers and lakes

86

Humans remove nitrogen from the soil by all of the following except?

Harvesting of nutrient-rich crops

Mining of nitrogen-rich mineral deposits

Applying organic fertilizers to agricultural land

Leaking water-soluble nitrate ions from soil through irrigation

None of these answers

Applying organic fertilizers to agricultural land

87

Which of the following generalizations about developing countries is true?

They have a high average GNP per person

They use about 12% of the world’s resources

They’re highly industrialized

They include the US, canada, japan, former soviet union, and european countries

They make up about 1/10 of the world’s pop.

use about 12% of world's resources

88

Which of the following best describes the concept of environmental degradation?

Using oil to make gasoline

Letting agricultural runoff cause oxygen depletion and fish kills downstream

Cutting trees for wood products

Using solar power at a rapid rate

All of these answers

Letting agricultural runoff cause oxygen depletion and fish kills downstream

89

Which of the following is not a renewable resource?

Crops
Groundwater
Trees in a forest
Oil
Fertile soil

oil

90

This process converts compounds like co2 or methane into carbohydrates using an energy source such as hydrogen sulfide?

Fermentation
Chemosynthesis
Photosynthesis
Transpiration
Aerobic respiration

chemosynthesis

91

Which of the following is an example of reuse?

Making compost out of kitchen scraps

Making paper goods from previously used paper

Using waste heat to warm a room

Using a plastic butter tub to store leftovers

Remelting aluminum cans

remelting aluminum cans

92

Use of a natural resource based on sustainability yield applies to ?

renewable resources

93

All non renewable resources can theoretically be ?

exhausted or depleted

94

Nonpoint sources of pollution include all of the following except

A smokestack from a power plant

95

What is the tragedy of the commons?

Degradation of the actions of resources

Overfishing , water pollution , and air pollution

96

Pollution cleanup effects can be ineffective because?

Move trash from 1 place to another are hard to clean up

97

Root cause of environmental problem include?

People and population

98

Theodore Roosevelt establish the ?

Wildlife refuge

99

Who developed the sierra club ?

John muir

100

What's the ccc?

Roosevelt set up to stop the great depression and putpeople back to work

101

What president 3x the amount of in the national wilderness systems and 2x the area administered by national park service ?

Theodore Roosevelt

102

What best describes the concept of environmental degradation?

letting agricultural runoff cause oxygen depletion and fish kills downstream

103

Red &a yellow in a soil horizon visually indicates?

The soil is low in organic matter and needs nitrogen enrichment

104

Aerobic respiration requires?

oxygen

105

Ammonium ions are converted to nitrite ions &a nitrate ion through the process of?

nitrification

106

Ecosystem

a biological community of interacting organisms and their physical environment.

107

Community

Population of all species living and interacting in an area at a particular time

108

How do humans add sulfur to the atmosphere

Burning fossil fuels

109

Nitrate is converted to nitrogen through the process of

denitrification

110

Niche

the function or position of a species within an ecological community.

111

What does the conversion of solar energy into chemical energy occurs in

photosynthesis

112

The topsoil horizon is described by the letter

o

113

2 ways human interference with carbon cycle

Deforestation and burning fossil fuels

114

Form of nitrogen most useable to plants is

nitrate

115

In a typical soil profile, the top soil composed of

humus

116

What cycle does not contain gas phase

phosphorus

117

Chemosynthesis

the synthesis of organic compounds by bacteria or other living organisms using energy derived from reactions involving inorganic chemicals, typically in the absence of sunlight.

118

Aerobic respiration

process of producing cellular energy involving oxygen

119

Transpiration

process by which moisture is carried through plants from roots to small pores on the underside of leaves, where it changes to vapor and is released to the atmosphere

120

The intrinsic rate of increase

Rate at which a population increases in size if there are no density dependent factors regulating the population

121

All of the following are general types of pop change curve except?

Explosive
Stable
Cyclic
irregular

Explosive

122

Which of the following is not one of the age structure categories?

Prereproductive
Reproductive
Post reproductive
Elderly
none

elderly

123

A logistic growth curve depicting a population that is limited by a definite carrying capacity is shaped like the letter

J
L
M
S
N

s

124

A population crash occurs when?

A pop approaches its carrying capacity

Environmental resistance comes into play gradually

Resources are essentially unlimited

Pop overshoots carrying capacity and environmental pressure causes effects

Pop growth rate slows

Pop overshoots carrying capacity and environmental pressure causes effects

125

Density dependent pop controls include all of the following except

Disease
Human destruction of habitat
Paratism
Competition for resources
Predation

Competition for resources

126

Pop of rabbits in Fremont is 250 in Sept, 2004 and growing at a rate of 3.5% each . If the rate remains the constant, determine the month and year in which the rabbit pop with reach 128,000?

May 2006
Sept 2006
May 2019
Sept 2019

Sept 2019

127

The changes in pop. density, dispersion, and age structure are known as?

Succesor
Demography
Pop dynamic
Biotic potential
Carrying capacity

pop dynamic

128

Which of the following best describes the survivorship curve you would expect to find for a fish?

Late loss
Constant loss
Early loss
No loss
None

Early loss

129

Which of the following is not a reason why organisms tend to live in clumps?

Resources vary greatly in availability from place to place

Living in herds, flocks or schools can provide protection of animals

Living in a pack gives predator species a better chance of getting food

Some animals form temporary groups for mating or carrying young

Intra specific competition decreases when living in a group

Intra specific competition decreases when living in a group

130

All of the following illustrate exponential growth except?

A king promised to double the number of grains of wheat

Human population growth

Driving 10 mph for 1 min, after a min 20 mph, after a min 30 mph, and then after a min 40 mph

Money in a savings account

Bacteria population growth

Driving 10 mph for 1 min, after a min 20 mph, after a min 30 mph, and then after a min 40 mph

131

If the world’s pop grew by 2% in 1998 and continued at that rate how long would it take Earth’s population to double
20 years
25 years
30 years
35 years
40 years

35

132

You are visiting a developing country, Compared to developed country, you would expect to find a?

Higher % of the pop with safe drinking water

Higher % of pop under the age 15

Higher average life expectancy

More urban population

Higher % of pop over 60

Higher % of pop under the age 15

133

Root causes of environmental problems include?

Rapid pop growth

Even distribution of wealth

Increasingly sustainable use of resources

Prices reflecting environmental costs

Using non renewable resource sensibly

Rapid pop growth

134

Human pop have grown exponentially over the last 200 years due to?

Medical advances

Expansion in agriculture

Increasing industrial production

Improved hygiene

All the above

all

135

A common argument against pop. growth control could be that?

It violates against religious or moral beliefs

It violates the right to privacy

It keeps minorities or citizens of developing countries from gaining power

A and B only

A, B , and C

A and B only

136

The optimum sustainable pop. is?

The level that would allow most people to live in reasonable comfort and freedom without impairing the ability of the planet to sustain future generations.

The level that could be sustained by creating tech that would solve any environmental problem human might face

The maximum number of people that could live comfortably but not induce any environmental degradation on the planet

All the above

None of the above

The maximum number of people that could live comfortably but not induce any environmental degradation on the planet

137

The population change in a particular year can be calculated by?

(death+emigration) - (births+immigration)

(births+immigration) - (death+emigration)

(deaths+immigration) - (births+emigration)

(births+emigration) - (death+immigration)

(births+deaths) - (immigration+emigration)

(births+immigration) - (death+emigration)

138

The crude birth rate is the number of live births per__ persons in a given year.
50
100
500
1,000
10,000

1,000

139

The highest crude birth rate and crude death rate are in

Africa
Latin America
Asia
Europe
Oceania

africa

140

Total Fertility rate is?

The number of children born to a woman during her lifetime

The number of children a couple must bear to replace themselves

The average number of children a woman typically has during her reproductive years

The number of live births per 1000 people

The births and immigration into a population minus the deaths and emigration

The average number of children a woman typically has during her reproductive years

141

The actual average replacement- level fertility for the whole world is slightly higher than

1 child per couple
2 children per couple
3 children per couple
4 children per couple
5 children per couple

2 children per couple

142

The total fertility rate in the United States reached a peak
When the U.S was dominated by an agricultural economy during the late 1700s ?

After the civil war, in the 1870s

After world war 1, in the mid 1920s

After world war 2, in the mid 1950s

After the Vietnam War, in the mid 1970s

After world war 2, in the mid 1950s

143

Which of the following is not an economic factor decreasing the likelihood of a couple having a child?

Religious beliefs

Cost of education

Lack of a pension system

Employment opportunities for women

Need for child to be part of family labor pool

Religious beliefs

144

Two useful indicators of overall health in a country or region are ?

Birth rate and death rate

Replacement-level fertility rate and total fertility rate

Life expectancy and infant mortality rate

Life expectancy and death rate

Population growth rate

Life expectancy and infant mortality rate

145

Death rates have declined because of ?

Increased food supplies

Access to birth control

Improved sanitation and hygiene

A and C only

A, B and C


A and C only

146

Infant mortality rate refers to the number of children out of 1,000 that die?

Before birth
In their first month
In the first half-year of life
By their first birthday
By their 5th birthday

By their first birthday

147

The age structure of a population is the number or percentage of ?

Females age 14 years or under

Females age 15 to 44

Males age 15 to 44

Persons of each sex at each age level

Person of each sex at age 15 to 44

Persons of each sex at each age level

148

Rapidly growing countries have an age structure that

Forms an inverted pyramid

Has a broad based pyramid

Shows little variation in population by age

Has a large pre-reproductive pop

Has a large post reproductive pop

Has a large pre-reproductive pop