Apes Ch.18 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Apes Ch.18 Deck (72):
1

risk

the possibility of suffering harm from a hazard that can cause injury, disease, death, econ, envir.
expressed in probablility

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risk assessment

scientific process of estimating how much harm a hazard can cause

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risk management

deciding whether or how to reduce a particular risk to a cartain level`

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4 types of hazards

cultural
bio
chem
physical

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biological hazard

from pathogens that can infect humans

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chemical hazard

from harmful chem in air, water, soil, food

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physical hazard

fire, earthquake, volcano, flood, tornado, hurricane

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cultural hazard

smoking, diet, drugs, drinking, driving, poverty

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nontransmissible disease

not caused by living organisms and does not spread from one person to another. develop slowly.
asthma, disorders, malnutrition

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transmissible/infectious disease

a pathogen (bacteria, virus, parasit) invades body and multiplies in cells. body cannot mobilize its defenses fast enough to keep the pathogen from interfering

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bioterrorism

deliberate release of disease-causing bacteria/viruses into water, air, food supply of urban.
biosensors: quick detection of disease

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epidemic

large scale outbreak of an infectious disease in an area/country

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pandemic

global epidemic

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reduce death rates/ infectious disease since 1950

due to
better health care
antibiotics
vaccines

but genetic immunity to antibiotics and disease-transmitting species of insects have become imune to pesticides

15

growing germ resistance to antibiotics

due to their rapid production- natural selection. transfer resistance to nonresistant bactueria even more quickly

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factors that foster genetic resistance

1. spread of bacteria around the globe
2. overuse of pesticides- increase resistance
3. overuse of antibiotics

- every major disease has strains that resist at least one of roughly 160 antibiotics

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Tuberculosis

rapid spread in developing countries. most don't appear sick
diagnosis is expensive in large hospitals
India-biosensors
recent increase due to lack of screening/control programs and genetic resistance

pop growth, urbanization, air travel increase contact btw pppl n spread TB. AIDS gets it easily

ppl stop taking drugs early not 6 months

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Viral diseases

Flue- HIV- Hep B kills most

HIV- chimpanzees
SARS - wild animals sold in chinese food market

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how to slow spread of HIV

reduce # of new infections below # of deaths

concentrate on ppl that are likely to spread the disease

provide free HIV testing

mass ads and edu programs for adult/students to help prevent disease. codom gap

provide low cost drug to slow the progress of disease

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west nile virus

transmitted to humans by bite of mosquito that fed on infected birds. 1999: spread in US

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severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)

china
flu-like
turn into pneumonia
contained in 2003

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malaria

1/5 ppl
killed more ppl than all wars
no vaccine
parasite that is spread by bite of a certain mosquito species. destroy RBC: fever, chills, dweats, anemia. mostly children: brain damage

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malaria mosquitos

protozoan parasite.
uninfeted female mosquito bites an infected personn and later bites the uninfected person. parasites multiply in the liver and enter blood cells . sharing needles. the cycle repeates till immunity, treatment, death

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how to stop malaria

draining swamplands/marshes
spray insecticides in breeding areas
but increased due to mosquito genetic resistant to insecticides and parasite antimalarial drugs
provide window screen
cultivating fish that eat mosquito larvae
clearing vegetation
plant trees that soak up water in marh
zinc/Vit A supplement to boost resistance
spray insides of home with DDT pesticide
cheap treatment

chinese wormwood antimalarial drugs. little funding

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solutions to infectious disease

increase research
reduce poverty/malnutrition/ unnecessary use of antibiotic
improve drinking water quality
educate ppl
immunize
oral rehydration for diarrhea

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ecological medicine

infectious disease are moving from one species to another.
disease spread from animals to humans bc ppl take over habitat (clear forests/rainforest- increase malaria's range) international exotic trade, livestock in crowded feedlot expposes ppl

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nipalt virus

malaysia pig farmers cleared forest displaced bats (flying foxes) and they lived in barnes. lay waste (infected with the virus) in pig's drinking water. virus spread from pigs to humans. brain inflammation, death. contain whne pig farms are closed n killed

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lyme disease

forest clearing to build in US caused more cases. ticks on deer/mice. expansion reduce population of fox/wildcats so prey popu increased and infected more ppl. lyme doesn't spread btw ppl

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e.coli n salmonella

global trade of livestock increse cases of food-borne infectious disease bc contamination with waste

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toxic chemical

temp/perm harm/death to humans/animals

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hazardous chem

harm animals bc flammable/explosive or irritate/damage skin/lungs, allergic rxn

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3 types of potentially toxic agents

mutagens
teratogens
carcinogens

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mutagens

chem/radiation cause increase in frequency of mutation in DNA. usually: no harm but may lead to cancer. can occur in reproductive cells passed to offspring.

34

nitrous acid mutagens

form digesting nitrite preservatives in food cause mutation: stomach cancer

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teratogens

chem that cause harm/birth defects to fetus/embryo
alcohol, arsenic, benzene, chlorine, chloroform, DDT, lead, mercury, PCBs

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ethyl alcohol
teratogens

drinking during pregnancy lead to low birth weight n other problems

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metastasis

malignant cells break off from tumors and travel to other parts and start new tumors. 10-40 year gap btw exposure with carcinogen to symptoms

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Effects of chem on body system

long term exposure to some chemicals at low doses may disrupt body systems

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effects of chem on immune system

specialized cells and tissues that protect the body against disease and substances. weakened by arsenic and dioxin

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neurotoxin

harm nervous systm/neurons
PCBs, methyl mercury, arsenic, lead, pesticides

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endocrine system

releases hormones into bloodstreams of vertebrate animals. hormones turn on and off bodily system that control sexual and learning

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hormonally active agents HAA
hormone mimics

synthetic chem mimic hormones, disrupt endocrine system.

DDT, PCBs, atrazine and herbicides., some attach to estrogen receptor

disrupt natural hormones in wild animals with low levels

need more research low levels on human. widely used chem and restriction could cause economic losses. controversial. safety measure were in bad conditions too. company paid compensation but did not admit guilt

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hormone blockers- HAA

preventing natural hormones such as androgens from attaching to their receptors

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gender benders- HAA

estrogen mimics n hormone blackers that possibly effect on sexual development/reproduction. excess in males can presence of both male and female sex organs or other problems

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thyroid distrupters HAA

pollutants that cause growth, weight, behavioral disorders.

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pthalates

softeners in PVC plastics and beauty products and baby stuff. high doses cause birth defects and liver/kidney damage in animals. hinder male reproductive organs and feminize them

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Bhopal india

worst industrial accident 1984
pesticide manufacture plant Union carbibe. explosion in underground storage tank release MIC gas used to produce carbamate pesticides. due to water leak into the tank.
could've been prevent if equipment upgrade and maintenance

48

MIC gas

in atmosphere, convert to deadly hydrogen cyanide has settle over the surrounding area and killed-injured ppl up till today.

concern about it happening in the US- terrorist acts against chem plants, pp, refineries

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toxicology

science that examines the effects of harmful chem on living things and ecosystem

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toxicity

measure of how harmful a substance is in causing harm to living organisms.
depends on:
dose
how ofen the exposure occured
who is exposed
body's detoxification system work
genetic makeup
solubility
persistence/resistance to breaksown
bioaccumulation
biomagnification
chemical interactions

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dose

amt of a substance a person has ingest, inhale, absorbed through the skin

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MCS
multiple chemical sensitivity

individuals that are sensitive to a number of toxins

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water soluable toxin

inorganic, can move throuhgout envir and into water supplies

oil/fat soluable- organic can penetrat membranes and accumlate in cells

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bioaccumulation

molecules are absorbed and stored at higher than normal level

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biomagnification

levels of toxins become magnified as they pas to higher levels in food chain. organisms at low trophic levels ingest only small amount of toxin but next level eats many of those organisms will take in increasingly larger amount

ex. long lived, fat solube: DDT, PCB

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chemical interaction of toxicity

decrease/multiply harmful effects of a toxin

antagonistic interaction: reduce harm. Vitamins

Synergistic interaction: multiplies harmful effect

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response

type and amount of health damage that result from exposure to chem

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acute effect

immeduatee/rapid harful reaction to exposure

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chronic effect

permanent/ long lasting consequence from exposure to a single dose or repeated lower

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concept of toxicology

chemical can be harmful if ingested in large enough quantitiy

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3 major mechanisms for reducing the harmful effects of chem

1. break down, dilute, excrete small amount of toxins to keep from reaching harmful levels. liver/kidneys-can overload

cells have enzymes that can repair damage to DNA and protein

some cells can reproduce fast enough to replace damaged

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poison/toxin

chemical that adversely affects the health of animal by causing injury/death

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trace levels of toxic chem

may or may not be harmful after exposure bc lack of data. controversial issues. small amt of toxic chem is everywhere: false impressions of increasing dangers. many synthetic chem are safe while natural chem is deadly

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we know little about harmful effects of chem

under existing laws, its hard/expensive to estimate their toxicity. methods for estimating toxicity levels have limitation. exposure levels at 1/100
only 10% of synthetic chem in use have been thoroughly screened, 2% have been tested have cancer/birth defect and none are tested for harm to body system. 99.5% unregulated

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controversy on prevention

EU push for pollution prevention. we should not release into the envir chem that can cause harm. find substitutes or recycle.
PRECAUTIONARY PRINCIPLE
based on incomplete evidence of harm

too expensivve and impossible to intorduce new chem/tech

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introducing new chem- establishing its safety

1. new would be harmful until scientific studies can show otherwise

2. existing chem that appear to have a chance in causing harm should be removed from the market until more research

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POP

persistent organic pollutants

global treaty that would ban use of 12 of them. DDT, PCBs, dioxins, furan, pesticides

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evaluate risk

identify hazard and evaluate risks, ranking risks, making decisions about reducing risks and informing ppl

comparative risk analysis: greatest risks vs low risk- ranks.

daily risk are not that harmful.
poverty is the greatest- premature death and reduce life span

2nd greatest risk result from voluntary choices-avoid smoking, obese, exercise, no alcohol. prevent cancer

3rd: flu

69

estimating risks of tech

difficult bc unpredictability of human behavor, chance, sabotage. reliability/probability that a person/device will complete a task w/o failing

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system reliability

tech reliability x human reliability

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perceiving risks

pppl are poor at evaluating relative risks they face bc of misleading info
denial
irrational fears

smoking, hang gliding driving more dangerous flu, nuclear pp accident, airplane crash, snake/shark attack

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4 factors can cause ppl to see a tech/product as being riskier than it really is

1. degree of control
2. fear of the unkown
3. whether we voluntarily take the risk
4. whether a risk is catastrophic not chronic.
single event vs over a long time
5. unfair ditribution of risk