Flashcards in Ophthalmology Deck (36)
A pt presents with bilateral red eye, watery discharge, itchiness and preauricular adenopathy with normal pupillary response most likely suffers from ....
Viral Conjunctivitis (easily transmissible)
(tx: topical antihistamines/ decongestants)
A pt presents with unilateral red eye, purulent/thick discharge, significant crust formation overnight and normal pupillary response most likely suffers from ...
(tx: topical antibiotics)
A pt presents with red eye, photophobia, hx of autoimmune disease and pain when light is shined in unaffected eye most likely suffers from ....
Uveitis (iris, ciliary body, choroid inflammation)
What diagnostic test is used to detect uveitis?
What is the treatment for uveitis?
What disease is keratic precipitates (inflammatory cells that accumulate on inside of cornea) associated with?
A pt presents with sudden onset red, severely painful eye that is hard to palpation and associated with fixed midpoint pupil (due to stuck pupil), walking into dark room invokes pain (b/c wants to react but can't), hazy/cloudiness of cornea , cup to disc ratio > 0.3 and decreased visual acuity most likely suffers from ....
Acute Angle Closure Glaucoma
What is the diagnostic test for Glaucoma?
Tonometry (elevation in intraocular pressure)
What are the treatments for aucte angle closure glaucoma? (5)
1. Acetazolamide (decreased aqueous humor production)
2. Mannitol (osmotic diuretic)
3. Pilocarpine (increases aqueous humor outflow via constricting pupil)
4. beta blockers (decrease production)
5. Laser trabeculoplasty (last resort)
A pt presents with red eye after trauma such as use of contact lenses and it feels like there is sand in the pt's eye most likely suffers from ...
What is the diagnostic test used for corneal abrasions?
What medications increase the drainage of aqueous humor and used in the treatment of glaucome?
1. Prostaglandin analogues (latanaprost, travoprost, bimatoprost)
What medications decrease the production of the aqueous humor and used in glaucoma?
1. carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (dorzolamide, brinzolamide)
2. topical beta blockers
(timolol, carteolol, betaxolol, metipranolol, levobunolol)
3. alpha adrenergic (apraclonidine, brimonidine)
A pt presents with red, swollen and painful eye and the sensation that something is caught under the eyelid most likely suffers from ....
What should be avoided in herpes keratitis?
steroids (worsen growth of virus leading to blindness)
What is the diagnostic test used to detect herpes keratitis?
Fluorescein staining (dendritic pattern under blue light)
What is the treatment for herpes keratitis?
1. oral acyclovir ( or derivatives)
2. topical trifluridine or idoxuridine
A pt presents with slowly progressive blurry vision, decreased color perception and difficulty with night driving (due to glare of headlights) most likely suffers from ...
Cataracts (opacification of lens)
What is the treatment for cataracts?
surgical removal of lens and replace with new intraocular lens
What is the diagnosis of early cataracts?
What patients should always have an ophthalmology consult immediately once diagnosed?
A diabetic pt complaining of floaters in their eye is suggestive of .... formation
What are the findings in nonproliferative (background) retinopathy in diabetics? (4)
1. dilation of veins
3. retinal edema
4. retinal hemorrhages
What are the findings in proliferative retinopathy in diabetics?
1. intravitreal hemorrhages
What is the most accurate diagnostic test for diabetic retinopathy?
fluorescein angiography (detects vessels that should undergo laser coagulation)
What is the treatment for proliferative diabetic retinopathy other than tight glycemic control? (3)
1. laser photocoagulation
2. VEGF inhibitors (vascular endothelial growth factors inhibitors)
3. vitrectomy (to remove vitreal hemorrhage obstructing hemorrhage)
What is the treatment for nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy?
tight glycemic control
A pt presents with sudden, painless unilateral vision loss and ophthalmoscopic findings include pale retina, diminshed perfusion, cherry red spot on fovea and box-car segmentation of veins most likely suffers from ...
Central retinal artery occlusion (pale b/c blood cant get in)
What are attempted treatments for central retinal artery occlusion? (5)
2. ocular massage (to unobstruct vessel)
3. acetazolamide (decrease intraocular pressure)
5. anterior chamber paracentesis
A pt presents with sudden painless unilateral vision loss and ophthalmoscopic findings include disk swelling, venous dilation, toruosity, and retinal hemorrhages most likely suffers from ...
Central retinal vein occlusion (blood gets in but can't come out)
A pt presents with sudden unilateral blurry vision without pain or redness, that is characterized as curtain coming down and have floaters and flashes at periphery of vision most likely suffers from ...
(associated with myopia and diabetic retinopathy)
What is the treatment for retinal detachment? (3)
1. mechanical attachment (sugery, laser, cryotherapy)
2. inject expansible gas (to push retina back in globe of eye)
3. surgical removal of vitreous and surgical attachement to sclera
A elderly pt presents with slow progressive bilateral central visual loss with drusen (yellowish deposits) most likely suffers from ...
Dry (atropic) type of macular degeneration
A pt presents with rapid bilateral central visual loss with drusen (yellowish deposits) and neovascularization most likely suffers from ...
Wet (exudative) type of macular degeneration
(more cause of blindness)
What is the most accurate diagnostic test for macular degeneration?