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Flashcards in Rheumatology Deck (128)
1

What are the 4 basic questions that need to be answered to determine cause of arthritis?

1. distribution
2. acute vs. chronic
3. systemic symptoms
4. joint inflammation

2

What are causes of polyarticular (more than 4 joints) symmetric arthritis?

1. rheumatoid arthritis
2. lupus (scleroderma, sjogren)
3. viral (Parvovirus B19, hep B)

3

What are causes of monoarticular (1 joint) arthritis?

1. osteoarthritis
2. Gout/ Pseudogout
3. septic (gonococcal)

4

What are the causes of migratory (move from joint to joint) arthritis?

1. lyme disease
2. disseminated gonococcal
3. rheumatic fever

5

What are the causes of oligoarticular (few joints) asymmetric arthritis?

1.spondyloarthropathy (ankylosing spondylitis) (young)
2. osteoarthritis (old)

6

A pt presents with polyarticular symmetric arthritis with skin, lung, CNS, blood and/ or kidney manifestations most likely suffers from ...

lupus (SLE)

7

What are signs of joint inflammation?

1. erythema, warmth
2. joint stiffness > 1 hour (better w/ exercise, mobility, as day goes by)
3. elevated ESR or CRP
4. elevated WBC in aspirate

8

What disease is suggested by < 2000 WBCs in synovial fluid of joint?

denegerative joint disease (osteoarthritis)

9

What disease is suggested by WBCs 5000-50,000 in synovial fluid of joint?

inflammatory disease (gout, pseudogout, rheumatoid arthritis)

10

What rheumatologic disease has needle-shaped negative birefringent crystals in joint aspiration?

Gout

11

What rheumatologic disease has rhomboid-shaped postivie birefringent crystals in joint aspiration?

Pseudogout

12

What disease is suggested by > 50,000 WBCs in synovial fluid of joint?

Septic arthritis

13

When is joint aspiration contraindicated?

1. have overlying cellulitis
2. bleeding disorder

14

What disease is associated with peripheral (rim) patterned ANA?

lupus

15

What disease is associated with centromere patterned ANA?

CREST syndrome

16

What disease is associated with Nucleolar patterned ANA?

Systemic sclerosis

17

What disease is anti-dsDNA specific for?

lupus (indicator of disease activity & lupus nephritis)

18

What disease is anti-smith specific for?

lupus

19

What disease is ant-histone antibodies specific for?

Drug-induced lupus

20

What disease is anti-LA (SSB) is specific for?

Sjogren syndrome

21

What disease is anti-centromere antibodies specific for?

CREST syndrome

22

What disease is anti-RNP antibodies specific for?

Mixed Connective Tissue Disease

23

What autoimmunity antibody is used as a prognostic indicator in pts with rheumatoid arthritis?

Rheumatoid factor (autoantibody against Fc portion of IgG)

24

What disease is associated with elevated c-ANCA?

Wegner's granulomatosis

25

What diseases are associated with elevated p-ANCA?

1. PAN
2. Churg- Strauss

26

What disease are associated with anti-Ro (SSA) antibodies?

1. Neonatal lupus
2. Sjogren
3. ANA-negative lupus

27

A female presenting with elevated PTT, hx of spontaneous abortions (2 or more), hx of thromboembolism, hx of arterial thrombosis and false positive RPR/VDRL most likely suffers from ....

antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (lupus anticoagulant or anticardiolipin antibodies)

28

What is the diagnostic criteria for rheumatoid arthritis?

1. morning stiffness (>1 hr)
2. swelling of wrist, MCPs, PIPs
3. swelling of 3 joints
4. symmetric swelling
5. RF or anti-CCP positive
6. joint erosions on X-ray
7. rheumatoid nodules (bumps over joint)
(need 4 for at least 6 wks)

29

A female present with chronic morning stiffness and inflammatory swelling of wrist, MCPs and PIPS symmetrically most likely suffers from ...

Rheumatoid arthritis

30

What disease is associated with anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP)?

Rheumatoid arthritis

31

What joints are never involved in rheumatoid arthritis?

1. DIP joint
2. lower back joints

32

What do X-rays show in a pt with rheumatoid arthritis?

done erosions and deformities

33

... is when PIP joint is flexed and DIP joint is hyperextened and develops in ... disease

Boutonniere deformity; Rheumatoid arthritis

34

... is when PIP joint is hyperextended and DIP joint is flexed and develops in .... disease

Swan-neck deformity; rheumatoid arthritis

35

... is a disease in which a pt has rheumatoid arthritis with splenomegaly and neutropenia

Felty syndrome

36

... is a disease in which a pt has rheumatoid arthritis with coal workers pneumoconiosis

Caplan syndrome

37

What is the best initial DMARD treatment in rheumatoid arthritis?

Methotrexate

38

What are the 3 complications associated with methotrexate treatment?

1. hepatotoxicity
2. pneumonitis
3. flare of rheumatoid nodules
(obtain CBC and LFTs q 1-2 months)

39

What is the second line DMARD treatment for rheumatoid arthritis?

TNF (tumor necrosis factor) inhibitors
(infliximab, adalimumab, etanercept)

40

What is the best initial treatment for rheumatoid arthritis?

NSAIDs or celecoxib (COX-2 inhibitor) with steroids (until methotrexate works)

41

What is the side effect associated with hydroxychloroquine (used in rheumatoid arthritis, lupus or malaria)?

retinopathy (screen w/ regular eye exam)

42

What are the complications of rheumatoid arthritis?

1. altantoaxial subluxation (C1-C2 subluxation)
2. Baker cyst

43

A pt with rheumatoid arthritis presenting with swollen painful calf most likely suffers from ...

ruptured Baker cyst (extension of inflamed synovium intor popliteal space)

44

A pt with rheumatoid arthritis preseningt with occipital headaches, neck pain, upper extremity tingling and numbness most likely suffers from ....

Altantoaxial (C1-C2) subluxation

45

Before starting TNF inhibitors as treatment for rheumatoid arthritis, what should be done?

PPD (test for TB)

46

When should a pt with rheumatoid arthritis be screened for C1-C2 subluxation?

before intubation and anesthesia (use X-ray of cervical spine)

47

What environmental factor has been found to invoke lupus flares?

UV B light

48

What is the diagnostic criteria for lupus?

1. malar rash
2. discoid rash (well defined w/ raised edges; scars)
3. photosensitivity
4. oral ulcers
5. serositis (pleuritis or pericarditis)
6. renal involvement
7. neuro deficits (seizures, psychosis, altered mental status, personality change)
8. hematologic (hemolytic anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia)
9. immunologic (anti-dsDNA, anti-SM, ANA)
(need 4)

49

What type of arthritis occurs in lupus?

polyarticular, symmetrical, inflammatory arthritis that is non-erosive

50

.... is a type of non-infectious endocarditis that occurs in pts with lupus

Libman-Sacks endocarditis

51

What should be done if a pt with lupus has signs of renal involvement?

renal biopsy (to distinguish the cause)

52

What is the treatment for discoid rash associated with lupus?

antimalarial drugs (hydroxychloroquine) and steroids

53

What are diagnostic tests used to detect lupus flare in pt with hx of lupus?

1. decreased C3 and C4 (CH50)
2. elevated anti-dsDNA

54

What is the most common cause of disability in pt with lupus?

Lupus nephritis (associated with anti-dsDNA)

55

What should a pregnant pt with lupus be screened for?

anti Ro (SSA) antibodies (cross placenta to cause neonatal lupus and heart block)

56

What is treatment for lupus flare in pregnancy?

steroids

57

What is treatment for increased spontaneous abortions and still birth in pt with lupus?

low-molecular weight heparin during pregnancy

58

What are the 4 drugs commonly associated with drug induced lupus?

1. hydralazine
2. isoniazid
3. procainamide
4. quinidine

59

What is treatment for drug induced lupus?

stop offending agent (symptoms resolve w/in 1-2 weeks)

60

A pt presents with arthritis, fever, fatigue and possibly pleurisy after starting medication (hydralazine, isoniazid, procainamide, qinidine) most likely suffers from ...

drug induced lupus

61

A pt presents with shiny, skin thickening, raynaud phenomena, and positive Scl-70 most likely suffers from ...

Diffuse Scleroderma

62

What are the viseral organ involvement associated with scleroderma?

1. GI: esophageal dysmotility, hypomotility of small intestine, diverticula
2. Pulm: pulmonary fibrosis (lead to death)
3. renal crisis

63

What is scleroderma renal crisis?

development of malignant HTN leading to acute renal failure

64

What is the treatment for hypertension and scleroderma renal crisis?

ACE inhibitors

65

What is the treatment for Raynaud's phenomena associated with scleroderma?

calcium channel blockers (nifedipine)

66

What is the treatment for skin thickening of scleroderma?

D-penicillamine

67

A pt presents with calcinosis, raynauds, esophageal dysmotility, sclerodactyly (skin thickening below elbow or knee), and telangiectasia most likely suffers from ...

CREST syndrome (Limited Scleroderma)

68

What diagnostic test can be done to distinguish between primary raynaud phenomenon?

Nailfold capillaroscopy test (place oil on nailfold at base of nail; if dilated-> secondary)

69

A pt presents with complains of itchy eyes, sandy feeling in eye, dry mouth, difficulty swallowing, dental caries and bilateral parotid enlargment most likely suffers from...

Sjogren syndrome

70

What is keratoconjunctivitis sicca syndrome and what disease is it associated with?

dry eyes and destruction of corneal epithelium due to decreased lacrimal production

71

What are diagnostic tests used for Sjogren syndrome?

1. schirmer's test (detect decreased tear production)
2. Rose Bengal stain (detect corneal ulceration)
3. salivary gland biopsy (detect lymphocytic infiltration)

72

What cancer is associated with Sjogren syndrome?

Lymphoma

73

What are treatments used for Sjogren syndrome?

1. artificial tears
2. pilocarpine/ cevimeline (increase ACh -> increase tear and saliva production)

74

A man presents with chronic lower back pain associated with morning stiffness that improves with exercise and has aortic insufficiency most likely suffers from ...

Ankylosing spondylitis

75

What is treatment for Ankylosing spondylitis?

1. NSAIDs, PT and exercise
2. TNF inhibitors (infliximab, adalimumab, etanercept)

76

What is the finding on spine X-ray?

1. sacrolitis
2. bamboo spine and squaring

77

A pt presents with seronegative, oligoarticular asymmetric arthritis with associated mucocutaneous manifestations (painful oral/genital ulcers) and conjunctivities most likely suffers from ...

Reiter's syndrome secondary to nongonococcal urethritis (chlamydia infection)

78

What a unique treatment used for Reiter's syndrome compared to other reactive arthritis?

prolonged tetracycline use (3 weeks)

79

What is keratoderma blenorrhagica and what disease is it associated with?

thickening of the palms an soles of the feet; Reiter's syndrome

80

What is circinate balanitis and what disease is it associated with?

erythema around tip of penis; Reiter's syndrome

81

A pt with a hx of psoriasis presents with complaints of oligoarticular asymmetric arthritis mostly involving DIP joint with associated sausage-shaped digits most likely suffers from ...

Psoriatic arthritis

82

A pt with hx of inflammatory bowel disease who presents with oligoarticular asymmetric arthritis with associated pyoderma gangrenosum or erythema nodosum most likely suffers from ...

Enteropathic Arthropathy

83

A pt presenting with chronic monoarticular or oligoarticular asymmetric arthritis that is not inflammatory and usually involves DIPs, pain worsens with exercise and relieved by rest most likely suffers from ..

Osteoarthritis

84

What is the most common joint affected in osteoarthritis?

knee (followed by base of thumb)

85

What are the X-ray findings in osteoarthritis?

1. osteophytes (hypertrophy of bone)
2. unequal joint space
3. subchondral cysts

86

... are osteophytes that occur in PIP joints and associated with ... disease

Bouchard's nodes; osteoarthritis

87

... are osteophytes that occur in DIP joints and associated with ..... disease

Heberden's nodes; osteoarthritis

88

What are treatments for osteoarthritis?

1.acetominophen/ NSAIDs
2. capsaicin cream (associated with local burning)
3. surgery arthroplasty (if severe and debilating)
4. intraarticular injection of hyaluronic acid

89

A man presents with acute inflammation of MP joint of big toe that started in middle night and intensely painful most likely suffers from ....

Gout (monosodium urate deposition)

90

What are triggers for acute gouty arthritis?

1. alcohol
2. red meat
3. anti-TB meds (pyrazinamide, ethambutol)
4. infection
5. diuretics (hydrochlorothiazide, furosemide)
6. aspirin

91

What are treatments for acute gouty arthritis?

1. NSAIDs
2. Steroids (if pt has renal failure)
3. Colchicine

92

What are treatments for chronic treatment of gouty arthritis?

1. Allopurinol (Febuxostat if intolerant)
2. Pegloticase (if refractory)
3. Probenecid (in undersecretors; avoid in renal failure/ kidney stones)

93

What diagnostic test is used to distinguish between gout and pseudogout (due to calcium pyrophosphate crystal deposition?

arthrocentesis and synovial fluid analysis

94

What are the 4 diseases that are associated with pseudogout?

1. Hyperparathyroidism
2. hemochromatosis
3. hypophosphatemia
4. hypomagnesemia

95

What are X-ray findings associated with pseudogout?

linear radiodense deposits in joint menisci/ articular cartilage
(chondrocalcinosis)

96

What are X-ray findings associated with gout?

erosions in chronic

97

What is the most common cause of septic arthritis, especially in younger pt?

Neisseria gonorrhea

98

What is the most common cause of septic arthritis in elderly pt?

S. aureus

99

A young pt presents with acute monoarticular, inflammatory arthritis and found to have >50,000 WBCs in synovial fluid most likely suffers from ...

Gonococcal septic arthritis

100

What is the treatment for gonococcal septic arthritis?

ceftriaxone

101

When should one use oral steroids for acute gouty arthritis?

1. if pt has renal failure (avoid NSAIDs and Colchicine)
2. if polyarticular gout

102

An elderly pt with hx of rheumatoid arthritis with acute monoarticular, inflammatory arthritis and found to have > 50,000 WBCs in synovial fluid most likely suffers from ....

S. aureus associated septic arthritis (tx with vancomycin and nafcillin)

103

A pt presents with recurrent URI's (chronic sinusitis/ rhinitis), lung involvement (hemoptysis) and kidney involvement (nephritis) most likely suffers from ...

Wegener granulomatosis (small vessel vasculitis)

104

What is the confirmatory test for Wegener's?

biopsy of involved organ (vasculitis and granulomas)

105

What is the treatment for Wegener's?

steroids and cyclophosphamide

106

A pt presents with fever, malaise, weight loss, abdominal pain, and mononeuropathy (wrist/foot drop) (with involvement of skin, kidney, nerves and GI) found to have aneurysms of renal and GI arteries on angiogram most likely suffers from ...

Polyarteritis Nodosa (PAN)
(medium size arteries)

107

What is treatment for polyarteritis nodosa (PAN)?

steroids and cyclophosphamide

108

What infection is associated with polyarteritis nodosa?

hepatitis B

109

An adult pt with new-onset asthma with associated eosinophilia, lung involvement and possibly mononeuritis multiplex most likely suffers from ...

Churg Strauss syndrome
(PAN in an asthmatic pt)

110

What is treatment for Churg Strauss?

steroids and cyclophosphamide

111

A elderly pt presents with new onset headache (usually unilateral) with associated scalp tenderness, jaw claudication and possibly polymyalgia rheumatica (proximal stiffness) most likely suffers from ...

Temporal arteritis (Giant cell arteritis)

112

What is the best initial test for temporal arteritis?

ESR (elevated >60 then start prednisone immediately to avoid blindness)

113

What is the most accurate test for temporal arteritis?

temporal artery biopsy (dont wait for this test to start prednisone)

114

A pt presents with progressive proximal muscle weakness not involving ocular muscle without skin manifestations most likely suffers from ...

polymyositis or inclusion body myositis

115

What is treatment for polymyositis?

steroids

116

A pr presents with progressive proximal muscle weakness not involving ocular muscle with skin manifestatins most likely suffers from ...

Dermatomyositis (elevated risk for common cancers- do age appropriate screening)

117

.... is purple-like discoloration of face, eyelids and sun-exposed areas and is associated with .... disease

Heliotrope rash; dermatomyositis

118

.... are scaly lesions present on the knuckle of pt with proximal muscle weakness and is associated with .... disease

Gottron's papules; dermatomyositis

119

What is treatment for dermatomyositis?

steroids

120

What autoimmune antibody is associated with inflammatory myopathies (polymyositis, dermatomyositis)?

Anti-Jo1

121

what is the major complication associated with temporal arteritis?

blindness

122

What vasculitis disease is associated with polymyalgia (proximal stiffness and pain involving neck, hip)?

Temporal arteritis

123

What is the objective way to monitor treatment of temporal arteritis?

follow ESR

124

What are the EMG findings for inflammatory myopathies?

short duration, low-amplitude units
(myopathic potentials-spike and drop pattern)

125

What is the most accurate test for inflammatory myopathies?

muscle biopsy

126

What causes proximal muscle weakness?

1. thyroid state
2. drugs (statin)
3. adrenal insufficiency
4. Eaton lambert
5. Myasthentia gravis
6. inflammatory myopathies

127

What is the initial test for inflammatory myopathies?

creatine phosphokinase (elevated CPK)

128

What is the objective way to follow treatment of inflammatory myopathies?

creatine phosphokinase (CPK)