Disorders association with Tourette’s Disorder
ADHD (50%) and OCD (40%)
Genetic associations with Alzheimer type neurocognitive disorder
- mutation chromosome 1 and 4
- chromosome 19 (apolipoprotein E)
- chromosome 21 (linked to Down Syndrome)
What is the neurotransmitter involved in Alzheimer, how is it? why is it? Treatment options
- Ach ⬇️, because choline acetyl transferase⬇️
- “Don’t memorize, listen the galactic river information”:
Donezepil, memantine, rivastigmine, galantamine
What do you LOSS in neurocognitive disorder?
What defines Tourette’s Syndrome? What is the Neurochemical changes and then treatment options?
Multiple Motor and/or Vocal tics
- Simple: rapid, repetitive contractions
- Complex: more ritualistic than purposeful
⬆️ Dopamine (Norepinephrine too) = Tx: Haloperidol, pimozide, Clonidine, Risperidone
Main symptom of frontal/temporal disease (Pick’s disease)
- Prominent frontal lobe symptoms
Sequence neurological manifestations of Huntington chorea
Choreoathetoid movements ▶️ neurocognitive disorder (dementia) ▶️ Psychosis
Main predisposing factor to vascular neurocognitive disorder to treat
How does the HIV produce the HIV-related neurocognitive disorder?
Chronic myelitis and encephalitis
Signs of HIV-related neurocognitive disorder, what is the earlier?
- Behavioral: dysphoric mood, apathy, social withdrawal, organic psychosis
- Cognitive: forgetfulness, 🔽 concentration, confusion
- Motor: 🔽 balance, leg weakness, poor handwriting
Where is the lesion if you can not recall or learn proper names?
Rostal (front) left temporal lobe
What aphasia allows to repeat statements? (Only one)
What is Gerstman Syndrome?
Lesion of dominant parietal cortex lobe:
- Finger agnosia
- Right-left disorientation
- Learning disabilities
What is Anton Syndrome?
Bilateral occlusion of posterior cerebral arteries:
- Cortical blindness
- Denial of blindness
- What happen if destruction of ventromedial hypothalamus? 2. And destruction of lateral hypothalamus?
- Hyperphagia and obesity
2. Anorexia and starvation
What is Klüver-Bucy syndrome?
Removing the amygdala
What structure results in damage in korsakoff syndrome?
Neuronal damage in thalamus.
Once damaged, not treatable with thiamin
What is Fahr Disease?
"It's a 30 CORRN in 50 houses" Calfication Onset at 30 Rare hereditary disorder Resembles negatives symptoms of schizophrenia Neurocognitive disorder at 50
Role of the substance P in pain
Transmit pain sensation from the skin to spinal cord.
Target of opiates.
Which is the most affected pathway in the brain by antipsychotics and movements disorders?
Nigrostriated pathway - major dopamine pathway
Extrapyramidal symptoms: tremors, rigid, bradykinesia, etc.
How do you treat extra pyramidal symptoms as side effect of antipsychotics?
- Benztropine, trihexyphenidyl, diphenhydramine: anticolinergic agents.
Why does the Tardive dyskinesia present?
Super sensitivity of post synaptic dopamine receptor