Organic Molecules Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Organic Molecules Deck (19):
1

Carbohydrates Monomer

Monosaccharide

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Carb: Distinguishing atoms

made up mostly of C, H, O
C:H:O ratios of 1:2:1

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Carbohydrate Properties

long molecules made up mostly of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen

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Carbohydrate Functions

store glucose as an energy reserve, sometimes provide structural support for cells

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Examples of Carbohydrates

Cellulose: makes up plant cell walls
Chitin: makes up exoskeleton of arthropods and cell walls in mushrooms
Starch: used for storage in plants
Glycogen: "animal starch"

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Protein Monomer

Amino acid

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Protein Distinguishing atoms and properties

-depiction of peptide bonds and amino and carboxyl groups
-very long, folded molecular chains

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Protein function

-variety of different functions such as storage, signaling, movement, transporting, and defense

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Protein examples

enzymes and antibodies

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Lipids Distinguishing atoms and properties

-C:H ratio of about 1:2
-very little O, may contain P and N
-hydrophobic
-one glycerol and three fatty acids (hydrocarbon chain with carboxyl at end)

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Lipid functions

can provide energy, insulation, or control of body's metabolic functions

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Lipid examples

cholesterol, sex hormones, and fats

13

Nucleic acid monomer

nucleotide

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Nucleic acid distinguishing atoms

-each nucleotide is made of a sugar, a nitrogenouse base, and a phosphate group

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Nucleic acid properties

-DNA molecules made up of two nucleotide chains in a double-helix shape
-RNA molecules have single nucleotide chain

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Nucleic acid function

contain genetic info that codes for cell's structure and activities

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Nucleic acid examples

RNA and DNA

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Saturated vs. Unsaturated fatty acids

-saturated fats contain a single bond between carbon atoms, come from animals
-unsaturated fats contain at least one double bond, come from plants,

19

dipeptide

a molecule consisting of two amino acids connected by one peptide bond