Unit 5:Lesson 5 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 5:Lesson 5 Deck (21):
1

osmoregulation

the general term for the process by which animals control solute concentrations and balance water gain and loss

2

osmolarity

moles of solute per liter of solution
-isosmotic: two solutions have same
-hyperosmotic: solution with greater osmolarity
-hypoosmotic: solution with less

3

osmoconformers

marine animals that are isosmotic with their environment

4

stenohaline

animals that cannot tolerate extreme changes in external osmolarity

5

euryhaline

the few animals that can survive large fluctuations of osmolarity in their environment

6

Marine Animal Adaptations: osmoconformers

must actively transport specific solutes

7

Marine Animal Adaptations: osmoregulators

-ocean is a strongly dehydrating environment
-may drink large amounts of seawater
-use gills and kidneys to excrete salt

8

Freshwater Osmoregulation

-must be hyperosmotic because animal cells cannot tolerate low salt concentrations of freshwater
-counter by drinking no water, and excreting large amounts of urine
-eat to replenish salt or uptake by gills

9

anhydrobiosis

some invertebrates that live in temporary waters can enter a dormant state when their habitats dry up
-a sugar appears to protect cells by replacing some water

10

Land Animals Osmoregulation

-dehydration is a major regulatory problem
-body coverings prevent water loss
-many are nocturnal, decreasing evaporative water loss
-maintain balance by drinking, eating moist foods, and producing water in cellular respiration

11

Energy use in Osmoregulation

-amount depends on
-difference in osmolarity
-how easily water and solutes move across the surface
- work required to pump solutes across a membrane
-energy use limited by body fluids adapted to salinity of a habitat

12

transport epithelia

one or more layers of epithelial cells specialized for moving particular solutes in controlled amounts in specific directions
-usually complex tubular networks

13

ammonia

a form of nitrogen which is removed when proteins and nucleic acids are broken apart or converted
-very toxic as it can interfere with oxidative phosphorylation

14

Ammonia excretion

-can be tolerated only at low concentrations so animals that excrete ammonia need access to lots of water
-excreted by aquatic species as it can diffuse across membrane and dissolve directly into water

15

Urea excretion

-most terrestrial and many marine species don't have access to enough water to excrete ammonia
-produced by a metabolic cycle in the liver that combines ammonia with carbon dioxide
-low toxicity so it can be transported at high concentrations
-animals have to expend energy to produce

16

Uric Acid

-excreted by insects, snails, reptiles, and birds
-relatively nontoxic
-needs little water to excrete
-synthesis requires considerable ATP

17

Type of Nitrogenous Waste used depends on;

-evolutionary history
-amount of water available
-how wastes can be carried away from eggs
-amount excreted is controlled by energy budget and diet

18

Osmoregulation of Single-celled organisms

-may have contractile vacuoles

19

Osmoregulation of plants

- have cell walls
-turgor pressure counteracts further water uptake

20

Gas Exchange in plants

-structure of plants allows most living cells to have atleast part of surface exposed to surrounding environment
-have stomata

21

Gas Exchange in complex animals

- gas exchange occurs between the environment and bloodstream
-gills and lungs help with this exchange