Unit 5:Lesson 4 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 5:Lesson 4 Deck (56):
1

dispersal

-movement of individuals (or gametes) away from their area of origin or from centers of high population density

2

species transplants

ecologists may observe the results of transplants to determine if dispersal is a key factor limiting species distribution
-sucess=some organisms reproduce sustainably
-means that species potential range> than actual range

3

Habitat Selection

some individuals tend to avoid certain habitats, even when they are suitable and accessible

4

Limiting Biotic Factors

-negative interactions with predators or herbivores restrict potential to survive and reproduce
-polinators, food resources, parasites, pathogens, and competing organisms may also be limiting factors

5

Limiting factors: Temperature

-temps outside a certain range may damage or stress an organism

6

Limiting Factors: Water and Oxygen

-some organisms may dry up if not enough water
-low oxygen levels in deep water or water with much organic matter limits organism processes

7

Limiting Factors: Salinity

-affects water balance of organisms through osmosis
-some do have osmoregulating adaptations

8

Limiting Factors: Sunlight

- too little can limit distribution of photosynthetic species
-high light levels can increase temp stress
-UV radiation can inhibit trees at high level elevations

9

Limiting Factor: Rock and Soil

-ph, mineral composition, and physical structures

10

interspecific interactions

includes competititon, predation, herbivory, symbiosis, and facilitation

11

interspecific competition

-/- interaction, species compete for a resource that limits their growth and survival

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Competitive Exclusion

When two species, who have identical niches compete for the same resource, in the absence of disturbance, one species will use resources more effectively and grow while the other will be eliminated

13

ecological niche

the sum of a species use of resources in an environment
-fundamental: potential
- realized: actual

14

resource partitioning

the difference between niches that enable similar species to coexist in a community
-time can also differentiate niches

15

Character Displacement

tendency for characteristics to diverge more in sympatric (competitive) than allopatric populations of two species

16

Predation

+/- interaction

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Predator adaptations

-have acute sense to detect prey
-adaptations to help them detect and subdue prey
-may use mimicry to lure prey

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prey adaptations

-behavioral defenses;hiding, fleeing, forming groups, alarm calls, some vigorously protect young, some have mechanical/chemical defenses
-mimicry and coloration

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cryptic coloration

camouflage that makes prey difficult to see

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aposematic coloration

warning coloration

21

Batesian mimicry

a palatable (harmless) species mimics an unpalatable (harmful one)

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Mullerian mimicry

2 or more unpalatable species resemble each other
- predators learn to avoid these prey quicker

23

Herbivory

+/1 interaction in which an organism eats parts of a plant or alga
-

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adaptations of herbivores

-insects have sensors on feet to help them detect edible and nutritious food
-mammals use sense of smell
-specialized teeth or digestive systems

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plant adaptations (against herbivory)

-have toxins or structures such as spines or thorns

26

Symbiosis

when individuals of two or more species live in direct and intimate contact with one another
-parasitism, mutualism, commensalism

27

Parasitism

+/-; one organism (parasite) derives it nourishment from a host

28

endoparasites

parasites that live within the body of the host
-parasites can cause atypical behaviors and damage to host

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ectoparasites

parasites that feed on the external surface of a host

30

Mutualism

+?+
-obligate: atleast one has lost its ability to survive without the other
-facultative; both can survive alone
-often involves related adaptations in both species as a change in one is likely to affect the other

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Commensalism

an interaction that benefits one species but has a neutral affect on the other
-possibly expose food

32

Facilitation

species have positive effects on survival and reproduction of other species without symbiosis

33

Benefits of higher diversity communities

- more productive
-can better withstand environment stresses,
-more stable productivity
-more resistant to invasive species (fewer resources are available)

34

Food webs

-link multiple food chains, given species may be a part of one or more trophic levels

35

energetic hypothesis

suggests that short length of food chains is due to the inefficiency of energy transfer along the chain (10%)
-most research supports this hypothesis

36

dynamic stability hypothesis

proposes that long food chains are less stable
- longer it is, the more slowly predators can recover from environment setbacks

37

Dominant species

the most abundant species or that which collectively has the most biomass
-possibly competitively superior or better at avoiding predation and disease
-discover impact, by removing them from a community

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Keystone species

not abundant but exert strong control because of their pivotal ecological roles

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ecosystem engineers

species that dramatically alter their environment

40

bottom up model

unidirectional influence from lower to higher trophic levels
N--->V--->H--->P
-adding predators would not affect lower levels

41

top-down model

predation controls community organization
N<---P

42

biomanipulation

applies top-down model to alter ecosystem characteristics

43

nonequilibrium model

describes most communities as constantly changing after being affected by disturbances

44

intermediate disturbance hypothesis

states that moderate levels of disturbance foster greater species diversity than do low or high levels do
-high levels= stress exceeds species tolerance
-low levels= dominant species exclude less competitive ones
-intermediate= opens up habitats

45

ecological succession

transition in the species composition of a community following a disturbance

46

primary succession:

when ecological succession begins in a virtually lifeless area where soil has not yet formed
-lichens and mosses are usually the first to colonize area

47

secondary succession

ecological succession in an existing community that has been cleared by some disturbance that leaves soil intact

48

Latitudinal Gradients

plant and animal life is generally more abundant and diverse in the tropics
-do not have many major disturbances, allowing more speciation
-larger growing season= faster biological time
-high solar energy input and water availability

49

evapotranspiration

the evaporation of water from soil plus the transpiration of water from plants
-higher in hot areas with high precipitation

50

species-area curve

all other factors being equal, the larger the geographic area of a community, the more species it has
-greater variety of habitats

51

Island Equilibrium Model

on an island, an equilibrium will eventually be reached where the rate of species immigration equals rate of equal extinction
-# of species at this point is correlated with the island's size and distance from the mainland
-usually applies over short periods

52

pathogens

disease-causing microorganisms or molecules
-can be harmful in a new habitat because organisms have not had a chance to become resistant
-can affect biotic structures that provide habitats or food for other species

53

zoonotic pathogens

those that are transferred to human from other animals

54

vectors

animals (like ticks)that spread disease from an animal to a human

55

Nutrient Cycling Rates

-depends on the rate of composition
-quicker in warm and wet climates
-decomposers can slow when conditions are too dry or too wet
- decomposers grow poorly in cold and wet environments

56

Amount of Nutrients leaving a forest community

mainly controlled by plants