Unit 5 Lesson 9 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 5 Lesson 9 Deck (33):
1

Fixed Action Patterns

sequence of unlearned acts directly linked to a simple stimulus and which is usually carried to completion
-trigger is an external cue or sign stimulus (color etc)

2

Migration

-guided by environmental cues
-may use position of sun or North star
-some can sense position relative to earth's magnetic field, possibly due to megnetite in heads or effects of magnetic field on photoreceptors in eye

3

circannual rhythms

behavioral rhythms linked to season, such as migration or reproduction
-influenced by day:night ratio
-may be guided by moon cycles/tidal movements

4

signals

stimulus transmitted from one animal to another

5

Forms of Animal Communication

1. Visual
2. chemical: transmission and reception of specific molecules
3. tactile communication: movement, touching
4. auditory communication

6

Pheromes

chemical substances emitted by animals that communicate through odors or tastes
-common in mammals and insects (usually related to reproduction)
-ex. one secreted by queen bee maintains social class
-can also serve as alarm signals

7

innate behavior

developmentally fixed behavior that does not vary within a population

8

cross-fostering study

young of one species are placed in the care of adults from another species
-measures changes in offspring behavior
-can eventually determine parental behavior

9

twin-study

compares the behavior of twins who have raised apart with that of those who have been raised together.

10

Learning

modification of behavior based on specific experiences

11

Imprinting

long-lasting response to a particular individual or object formed at a specific stage in life
-has sensitive period: a limited development phase when this type of learning can occur
-young learn basic behaviors and parents learn to recognize their offspring
-young recognize key characteristics or first moving object as parent

12

spatial learning

establishment of a memory that reflects the environments spacial structure

13

cognitive map

a representation in the nervous system between objects in an animals surrounding
-may note a position halfway between to landmarks

14

associative learning

the ability to associate one environmental feature (such as a color) with another (such as a foul taste)
-some associated pairings are restricted, typically depending on native environment

15

classical conditioning

an arbitrary stimulus (like ringing of a bell) becomes associated with a particular outcome

16

operant conditioning

animal first learns to associate one of its behaviors with a reward or punishment and then tends to repeat or avoid that behavior

17

cognition

the process of knowing that involves awareness, reasoning, recollection, and judgement
-many species (including insects) demonstrated this ability in labs

18

problem solving

cognitive activity of devising a method to proceed from one state to another in the face of an obstacle
-highly developed in primates and dolphins, some birds

19

Development of Learned behaviors

-some behaviors develop gradually, in stages
-sparrows memorize song by listening, sing tentative notes, eventually matching it to memorized song

20

social learning

learning by observing others
-ex. vervets learn appropriate alarm calls by observing others and receiving social confirmation (another call) when he is right

21

culture

a system of info transfer through social learning or teaching that influences the behavior of individuals in a population

22

Optimal foraging model

-natural selection should favor a foraging behavior that minimizes the costs (energy expenditure or risk of being eaten) and maximizes benefits( nutrition)

23

Mating Systems and Sexual Dimorphism

-promiscuous- no strong pair bonds
-longer relationships
-monogamous: not dimorphic
-polygamous: dimorphic

24

Parental Care

-when young cannot care for themselves, male may benefit by staying, resulting in monogamy
-mammalian males typically play no role in raising young but may protect a harem

25

certainty of paternity

when acts of mating or births are separated, exclusively male parenting is rare.
-males may engage in behaviors that increase their certainty of paternity.

26

Mate Choice by Females

-may play a central role in the evolution of male behavior and anatomy through intersexual selection
-female offspring may take cues from their father's appearance when choosing mates

27

Mate-choice copying

individuals in a population copy the mate choice of others
-may mask genetically controlled female preference below a certain threshold of difference

28

Mate Competition for mates

may involve agonistic behavior: contest that determines which competitor gains access to a resource

29

altruism

describes a behavior that reduces an animals individual fitness but increases the fitness of other individuals in the population
-ex. alarm calls, honeybees, naked mole rats

30

Inclusive fitness

the total effect an individual has on proliferating its genes by producing its own offspring and by providing aid that enables other close relatives to produce offspring

31

Hamilton's rule

-natural selection favors altruism when
rB>C
-B (benefit)= av # of extra offspring beneficiary of an altruistic act produces
-C(cost)= how many fewer offspring the altruist produces
-r(coefficient of relatedness)=fraction of genes that, on average, are shared

32

kin selection

the natural selection that favors altruistic behavior by enhancing reproductive success of offspring

33

Reciprocal altruism

an animal may behave altruistically toward non-relative expecting a returned favor in the future
- possible individuals are likely to meet again or there are negative consequences when they do not return a favor