Unit 5: Lesson 3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 5: Lesson 3 Deck (16):
1

biome

major life areas characterized by vegetation type or by their physical environment

2

Factors that determine biomes

-latitudinal patterns
-temperature
-precipitation
-climatic variation
-abiotic factors that affect what can grow
-organisms adapted to an environment

3

ecotone

an area of overlapping biomes

4

climograph

a plot of the annual mean temperature and precipitation in a particular region

5

vertical layers of a biome

-canopy
-lower-tree layer
-shrub understory
-ground layer of plants
-florest floor (litter layer)
-root layer

6

disturbance

an event that changes a community
-may remove organisms or alter resource variability
- results in biome patchiness

7

density

# of individuals per unit area or volume
-ecologists may count a sample or indicators of a population size or use mark-recapture method
-dynamic

8

dispersion

pattern of spacing among individuals of a population
-clumped (due to environmental conditions, mating behavior, better defense or predation)
-uniform: (due to antagonistic behaviors between individuals; rare)
-random (independent positioning)

9

demography

the study of the vital statistics of populations and how they change over time

10

life tables

age-specific summary of the survival pattern of a population
-follows a cohort from life to death

11

cohort

a group of individuals of the same age

12

Reproductive tables

-measures reproductive output of a cohort from birth to death

13

Per Capita Rate of Increase Formulas

dN/dt= B-D= bN-mN= rN
N=pop size b= per capita birth rate m= per capita death rate
r=b-m

14

Exponential growth

growth of a population under ideal conditions
dN/dt= r(max)N
-may occur in drastically reduced or newly introduced populations

15

Density-Dependent Factors

-provide negative feedback needed to halt population growth
Includes:
-competition for resources
-predation
-intrinsic factors
-toxic wastes
-territoriality
-disease

16

metapopulation

formed from a # of linked local populations