OSTEOLOGY- Cells, matrix, ossification, bone density, bone variation Flashcards Preview

Spinal Anatomy > OSTEOLOGY- Cells, matrix, ossification, bone density, bone variation > Flashcards

Flashcards in OSTEOLOGY- Cells, matrix, ossification, bone density, bone variation Deck (35):
1

What are the four basic tissues of the human body?

epithelial, muscle, neural, and connective tissue

2

What is osteology?

the study of bone

3

What are the three primary cell types of bone?

osteoblasts, osteocytes, and osteoclasts

4

What is the function of each type of bone cell?

osteoblast - form bone
osteocyte - maintain or nurture bone
osteoclast - remodel bone

5

What are the bone cells embedded in?

an amorphous matrix consisting of ground substance, protein fibers and various minerals

6

What is the primary constituent of the ground substance?

glycosaminoglycans

7

What types of glycosaminoglycans predominant in bone?

chondroitin sulfates, keratin sulfates, and hyaluronic acid

8

What is the principal type of protein fiber in bone?

collagen type 1

9

What are the primary constituents of the bone mineral?

calcium, phosphate, citrate and carbonate ions

10

what is the most frequently described deposit in bone?

hydroxyapatite

11

Bone is also the repository for what additional ions?

sodium, magnesium, fluoride, lead, strontium and radium

12

What is Wolff's Law as it pertains to bone?

living tissue will respond to stressors; bone is formed or absorbed in response to various stressors

13

What three responses of "living" bone were stressed in class?

it has the ability to heal, to remodel under stressors, and to age

14

Bone is the embryological derivative of which specific connective tissues?

mesenchyme and/or cartilage

15

What is the name given to the pattern of ossification in mesenchyme?

intramembranous ossification

16

What is the timing for the appearance of intramembranous ossification?

from the second to third month in utero

17

hat part of the axial skeleton is primarily formed by intramembranous ossification?

the skull

18

which of the skull bones are derived from intramembranous ossification?

the nasal, palatine, vomer, lacrimal, zygomatic, maxilla, frontal, parietal, most of the mandible, the squama of the temporal and occipital bones and the greater wing of the sphenoid

19

Which bone of the appendicular skeleton is partially formed by intramembranous ossification?

the clavicle

20

What is the name given to the pattern of ossification in cartilage?

endochondral ossification

21

What is the timing for the appearance of ossification in cartilage?

from the second to fifth month in utero

22

What part of the skull is derived from endochondral ossification?

chondrocranium

23

What bones are formed from the chondrocranium?

the inferior nasal concha, ethmoid, and the remainder of the mandible, sphenoid, temporal, and occipital bones

24

Which skull bones are ossified by both endochondral and intramembranous ossification?

the mandible, sphenoid, temporal and occipital bones

25

which bone of the appendicular skeleton is formed by both endochondral and intramembranous ossification?

the clavicle

26

What are the names given to the centers of ossification based on time of appearance?

primary centers of ossification appear before birth
secondary centers of ossification appear after birth

27

Mature bone is described as being composed of what areas based on bone density?

cortical or compact bone and spongy, cancellous, or trabecular bone

28

What is the name given to the bone below an articulating surface?

subchondral bone

29

What is the name of the outer fibro-cellular covering of bone?

the periosteum

30

What is the name given to the fibro-cellular lining of bone?

the endosteum

31

What are the primary sources of variation observed in bone?

sexual dimorphism (gender variation), ontogenetic variation (growth or age variation), geographic or population based variation (ethnic variation) and idiosyncratic variation (individual variation)

32

Difference sin the number or morphology of vertebrae within the population based on male and female variation is identified as which type of variation?

sexual dimorphism or gender variation

33

Differences in the number or morphology of vertebrae within the population based on age or developmental variation is identified as which type of variation?

ontogenetic variation

34

Differences in the number or morphology of vertebrae within the population based on ethnicity or locational variation is identified as which type of variation?

geographic variation or population based variation

35

Differences in the number or morphology of vertebrae within the population based on the uniqueness between individuals is identified as which type of variation?

idiosyncratic variation