Flashcards in OSTEOPOROSIS Deck (21):
Degenerative disease of the bone, where both mass and structure are lost, leading to weak and easily fractured bone.
What are the non-modifiable risk factors of osteoporosis?
Race: white or asian much more likely than black
Amenorrhea in female athletes
What are the modifiable risk factors for osteoporosis?
Sustained period of immobilisation
Vitamin D deficiency
Malnutrition (especially calcium deficiency)
What medical disorders have osteoporosis as a possible complication? (Name at least 7)
Any chronic disease that leads to immobilisation
Hypogonadal states such as Turner's syndrome
Some endocrine disorders (separate question for details)
Malabsorption disorders such as Crohn's
Sickle cell disease
What endocrine disorders have osteoporosis as a possible complication? (Name at least 5)
What medications can lead to the development of osteoporosis? (Name at least 5)
What do osteoblasts do
Add bone matrix
What do osteoclasts do?
Resorption of bone. They are essentially macrophages.
Where do osteoblasts work?
They only work where osteoclasts have already resorbed bone.
What is the bone density threshold for osteoporosis?
2.5 SD below that of normal adult mean value
What is the bone density threshold of osteopenia?
1 SD below the normal density of bone
What is increased in the marrow of a bone affected by osteoporosis?
What are osteocytes?
They are osteoblasts that have trapped themselves inside the bone matrix that they created. They stimulate osteoblasts and osteoclasts to recycle bone. They are connected to neighbour osteocytes.
Why do women get a lot more osteoporosis?
Oestrogen deficiency contributes to bone metabolism. So post menopausal women are more likely to develop osteoporosis.
What is the name of the cave left by the osteoclasts?
What is the glycoprotein which is reduced when the levels of oestrogen decrease?
OPG - Osteoprotegerin
What does RANKL do?
They promote osteoclast differentiation.
What does OPG do?
It binds to the RANKL to prevent it from activating the RANK receptor and hence prevent the maturation of osteoclasts.
What is the name of the drug that does the same role as the OPG?
What part of the femur is frequently fractured in patients with osteoporosis?
The neck of the femur