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Biological and Cognitive Foundations > Overview > Flashcards

Flashcards in Overview Deck (21):
1

cognitive neuroscience

attempt to use info about behavior AND brain to understand human cognition

2

cognitive neuropsychology

attempt to understand human cognition by studying brain-damaged patients

3

computational cognitive science

attempt to use computational models to further understanding of human cognition

4

Donders (1868)

reaction time experiment mental chronometry inferred mental activity from observing behavior

5

Ebbinghaus (1885)

retention curve forgetting cure shows "savings" as a function of length of time interval

6

Wundt (1897)

first psychology lab
structuralism through analytic introspection

7

structuralism

overall experience created by combining basic elements of experience

8

analytic introspection

Pro: start of study of the mind, influenced experimental psych Con: too subjective, lack reliability, too concerned with internal behavior

9

behaviorism

study directly observable behavior

10

Watson (1920)

Little Albert experiment
classical conditioning

11

Skinner (1950)

operant conditioning

12

information-processing approach

trace sequence of mental operations in cognition 
came about from computers
parallel processing
top-down and bottom-up processing
serial processing

13

spatial and temporal resolution ranges of techniques for studying brain function

A image thumb
14

lesion studies

studied natural lesions by examining neurological/psychiatric patients
studied experimental lesions by creating chemical and thermal lesions in animals

15

Single-unit recordings

electrode inserted into the brain
records activity from a single neuron
highly invasive
expensive
high temporal and spatial resolution
 

16

event related potentials

electrical activity under the scalp to measure brain waves. Average EEG=ERP. Limited in spatial resolution, require many trials, blind to subcortical activity.

17

positron emission tomography

tracks active brain regions through water and radioactive tracer. Detects positrons emitted. Has poor temporal resolution (~30-60 sec to reach the brain). Very invasive 

18

brain imaging

the subtraction technique measures brain activity before and during stimulation presentation
 

the difference between the activation determines what areas of the brain are active during manipulation

19

functional MRI

place subject in a strong magnetic field
it aligns most of the protons
a radio frequency pulse disrupts their alignment
measures the relaxation of the protons
 

poor temporal resolution
expensive
distortions in some brain regions 
loud noise
must remain still

20

magneto-encephalography

uses SQUID device to measure magnetic fields produced by brain electrical activity. High temporal resolution and moderate spatial resolution. Expensive, new and complicated

21

transcranial magnetic stimulation

pulse emitted by coil next to skull, produces a magnetic field that can disrupt brain activity that reveals a causative rather than correlational brain-behavior link. Not clear how it changes brain activity, only targes cortex, may be painful.