What are the 3 main symptoms that could warrant a surgical emergency in children?
What is the differential diagnosis of a 6-week-old child with milky vomit and bulges on their abdomen?
What colour is bile-vomit?
Green (like Fairy-Liquid-green)
Bile-coloured vomit is a red flag. True/False?
A baby with bile-coloured vomit is what condition until proven otherwise?
What is the differential diagnosis of a 6-month-old child with hard abdominal masses and “redcurrant jelly” faeces?
How is intussusception treated?
Blow air through bowel via anus
A 6-year-old boy complains of abdominal pain and “not liking the bumps en route to hospital”. He is reluctant to stand up. What is top of your differential list?
List general symptoms of an acute scrotum
Redness Swelling Bruising Pain Abnormal position
What is the most common cause of an acute scrotum?
Hydatid of Morgagni
What is a hydatid of Morgagni?
Vestigial Mullerian duct structure from development present on the top of the testis
1/3 have palpable blue dot discoloration on testis
What is balanitis xerotica obliterans?
Scarred foreskin with white hardened tissue which may prevent retraction
Hypospadias is the most common congenital defect of the penis. What is it?
Abnormally placed external urethral orifice on the urethral groove underside the shaft of the penis, causing pee to eject backwards
What is a hydrocele and what causes it?
Fluid accumulation around the testicle
Patent processus vaginalis
What test is done to detect undescended testis?
Place soap between ASIS and pubic tubercle and slide thumb along line to palpate the testicle: if palpable surgery is performed, if not palpable laparoscopic procedure is performed to locate the testicle